Can a dog survive HGE without treatment?

Best Answer

Dogs with HGE feel terrible, but luckily with treatment they usually are back to normal in no time.

Without treatment, HGE can be deadly.

Because conditions like HGE can pop up out of nowhere – and hospitalization for several days quickly becomes expensive – pet health insurance is a good idea for any pet.

Previous QuestionCan a dog die from bloody diarrhea?
Next QuestionHow do you stop a horse in rdr2?

Related Questions

Can a dog survive distemper without treatment?

There is no cure for canine distemper. Most vets recommend that dogs be hospitalized and separated from other dogs to prevent the spread of infection. The survival rate and length of infection depend on the strain of the virus and on the strength of the dog's immune system. Some cases resolve as quickly as 10 days.

Can a dog survive parvo without treatment?

If parvo is successfully treated, the virus will eventually shed from their body and they can be vaccinated to prevent future infection. Most dogs that are treated should survive, if they are treated quickly.

Can a puppy survive parvo without treatment?

If parvo is successfully treated, the virus will eventually shed from their body and they can be vaccinated to prevent future infection. Most dogs that are treated should survive, if they are treated quickly.

Can a human survive rabies without treatment?

New research has shown that humans may be able to survive Rabies without vaccination or treatment after all. Even in animals who carry Rabies the virus isn´t completely fatal; 14% of dogs survive.

Can dogs survive snake bite without treatment?

Approximately 80% of pets survive snake bite if treated quickly. The survival rate is much lower however for pets that are left untreated, and death can occur. Recovery from a snake bite usually takes 24 to 48 hours if the pet receives prompt veterinary attention and the snake bite is not severe.

Can dogs survive parvo without treatment?

Mortality rate: 90 percent if left untreated, 5-20 percent if aggressively treated. 80 percent of adult dogs show no symptoms; puppies are most susceptible. Extremely resilient, parvo can live in feces or other organic material for more than a year. The only household cleaner that will destroy the virus is bleach.

Can dogs survive heartworms without treatment?

No one wants to hear that their dog has heartworm, but the good news is that most infected dogs can be successfully treated. The goal is to first stabilize your dog if he is showing signs of disease, then kill all adult and immature worms while keeping the side effects of treatment to a minimum.

Can dogs survive paralysis tick without treatment?

Without treatment a pet can die despite removing the tick. Pets with tick paralysis often take several days to recover, and severely affected dogs and cats may take a week or more.

Can a dog survive a rattlesnake bite without treatment?

Although a typical human patient may receive as many as 10-20 vials of antivenin, in our veterinary patients one to two vials typically is effective, especially if given within several hours after the bite. Treatment of rattlesnake bites in dogs is not inexpensive.

Can a dog survive a snake bite without treatment?

Approximately 80% of pets survive snake bite if treated quickly. The survival rate is much lower however for pets that are left untreated, and death can occur. Recovery from a snake bite usually takes 24 to 48 hours if the pet receives prompt veterinary attention and the snake bite is not severe.

Can puppies survive parvo without treatment?

There is no cure for parvo, the vets can only do supportive care, which costs from $1500-3000 to treat, and there is a 20 % chance a puppy still could die. Parvovirus is probably the most common viral illness of dogs at the present time. It is much more common in puppies than it is in adult dogs.

Can you survive rabies without treatment?

New research has shown that humans may be able to survive Rabies without vaccination or treatment after all. Even in animals who carry Rabies the virus isn´t completely fatal; 14% of dogs survive.

Can you survive a copperhead bite without treatment?

Not all copperhead bites require antivenom. Of these patients treated, none received antivenom or surgery but were instead treated for pain and swelling. While venomous snake bites can be dangerous, antivenom also runs the risk of complications.

How long can you survive cancer without treatment?

Without treatment, the median survival for stage 0 liver cancer is more than 3 years. With treatment, between 70 and 90 out of 100 people (between 70 – 90%) will survive for 5 years or more.

Can a dog survive without eating meat?

Signs Dogs Can Live Without Meat. It is possible for dogs to live without meat, but there are a number of reasons why you shouldn't put your dog on this type of diet. This high-protein diet is hard to sustain without meat. Also, dogs need essential fatty acids that can only be found in meat proteins.

Can a dog survive without a gallbladder?

But, can a dog live without their gallbladder? The short answer: Yes! Just like people, doggos can live normal, happy, and healthy lives without their gallbladders.

Can a puppy survive parvo with treatment?

If parvo is successfully treated, the virus will eventually shed from their body and they can be vaccinated to prevent future infection. Most dogs that are treated should survive, if they are treated quickly.

Can a dog survive without a spleen?

However, dogs are able to live without a spleen and this is because the spleen forms part of an overall system that controls certain functions within the body. However, time is everything when it comes to spleen problems, with a ruptured spleen causing the risk of toxicity, shock, and death.

Can a diabetic dog survive without insulin?

Dogs with diabetes mellitus typically require two daily insulin injections as well as a dietary change. Although the dog can go a day or so without insulin and not have a crisis, this should not be a regular occurrence; treatment should be looked upon as part of the dog's daily routine.

Can a dog survive without teeth?

The good news is that dogs can adapt pretty well if they have some or even all of their teeth removed due to dental issues. If your dog does have to have its teeth removed, it will adapt to living without them, although it could take some time.

Can a dog survive Pyometra without surgery?

In cases of emergency such as a ruptured uterus from closed pyometra, a dog may have no more than 24 to 48 hours to live if not treated. Dogs who have open cervix pyometra can recover if they are treated on time. However, if these dogs are not spayed then they can still be at risk of developing pyometra.

Can dogs survive without a gallbladder?

But, can a dog live without their gallbladder? The short answer: Yes! Just like people, doggos can live normal, happy, and healthy lives without their gallbladders.

How long can a dog survive without eating?

According to the vet, healthy dogs and cats can last "three, four, five days without eating, many even longer than that. Food is not the main issue, but water is. If your dog is not eating or drinking water, it can be a big problem.

Can dogs survive without a spleen?

The good news is that dogs can live without a spleen and, in fact, if your dog is suffering from certain conditions, the removal of the spleen could be what saves its life. If your dog has a ruptured spleen, some of the signs to look out for include increased weakness, a tendency to collapse, and shock.

Can dogs survive without teeth?

The good news is that dogs can adapt pretty well if they have some or even all of their teeth removed due to dental issues. If your dog does have to have its teeth removed, it will adapt to living without them, although it could take some time.

Can dogs survive without meat?

Signs Dogs Can Live Without Meat. A few signs that dogs really shouldn't be put on a meatless diet include the scientific fact that dogs are omnivores, which means that their diets include both meat and plant-based foods when they are in the wild. In reality, dogs need more protein than humans do to survive.

Can a baby survive without a brain?

Girl born without a brain is now 6 years old, family seeks support. April Barrett's daughter, Kaliysha, was born with hydranencephaly, a rare condition that left her without a brain. Despite doctor's dismal expectations, Kaliysha is now 6 years old and has managed to survive with only a partially functioning brain stem

Can dogs survive without humans?

Most animals on earth are capable of living without humans except for the family dog, a phenomenon, and the result of a domestication process over thousands and thousands of years. Cats could do well when let loose in the wild, with their independent natures and strong prey drive still in place.

Can a human survive without a brain?

Since it controls vital functions such as breathing, swallowing, digestion, eye movement and heartbeat, there can be no life without it. But the rest of the brain is obviously capable of some remarkable feats, with one part able to compensate for deficiencies in another.

What is the treatment for HGE in dogs?

Most dogs are not fed during the first 24 hours of treatment and are often given antibiotics (such as ampicillin, enrofloxacin, or metronidazole) to combat potential secondary intestinal infection. Additional therapy for HGE may include gastrointestinal protectants (sucralfate) and anti-vomiting medications.

Can sheep survive without a shepherd?

It is too dumb to realize that it can't breath water, and so, unless someone jumps in to save it, it drowns. So no, domestic sheep can not live without a shepherd. People on the other hand are not sheep. That is why pretty much all shepherds are people and not other sheep.

Can a tick survive without its body?

No matter how long a tick is attached, it will never disappear inside the body. However, the longer a tick is allowed to feed, the higher the risk is of a disease resulting. MYTH 11 – If you leave a tick's head in it will grow a new body!

Can a human survive without meat?

As a new study in Nature makes clear, not only did processing and eating meat come naturally to humans, it's entirely possible that without an early diet that included generous amounts of animal protein, we wouldn't even have become human—at least not the modern, verbal, intelligent humans we are.

Can a tick survive without its head?

No matter how long a tick is attached, it will never disappear inside the body. However, the longer a tick is allowed to feed, the higher the risk is of a disease resulting. MYTH 11 – If you leave a tick's head in it will grow a new body!

Can a bird survive without tail feathers?

If a bird's tail feathers are pulled out, they will quickly grow back in. Many adult birds adapt quite readily to flying without their tail feathers. If the tail feathers are broken or frayed, new ones will not grow back in until the bird molts.

Can a puppy survive without shots?

Unvaccinated puppies. Puppies that are not protected by vaccination are at greater risk of contracting a serious disease. Unprotected puppies may survive without vaccination. There is no doubt that many unvaccinated dogs do survive and thrive.

Can flea eggs survive without a host?

Undisturbed and without a blood meal, a flea can live more than 100 days. On average, they live two to three months. While adult fleas all suck blood from a cat or dog or other mammal, their larvae live and feed on organic debris in the host animal's environment.

Can a baby deer survive without mother?

This is a valiant concern, and here's how I decide if the fawn is old enough to survive without its mother. Fawns can be weaned at 10 weeks of age (70 days). Fawns that are 45 to 60 days old are typically old enough to survive, although additional learning opportunities from mom are always advantageous.

Can dog worms go away without treatment?

It is not uncommon for very young puppies and kittens to contract coccidia, but the infection will usually go away without treatment. However, some animals do not fight it off on their own, and will require a vet's assistance. The number one symptom to watch for is bloody stool.

Can cats survive without meat?

Cats are regarded as obligate carnivores which means that in the wild they could not survive without eating meat. However, for the domestic cat there are commercial vegetarian foods available that contain synthetic versions of essential nutrients.

Do dogs survive heartworm treatment?

The treatment for heartworm disease takes at least 60 days to complete and consists of a series of drug injections that kills the worms. Your dog should be retested after treatment and six months later to ensure that all of the larvae, microfilariae and adult worms are dead.

Can I survive without meat?

“But you are still not getting adequate protein. You can survive on a 100% animal diet, but you cannot survive 100% on a vegan diet. “We became humans when we started to eat animal produce. Noakes went on to say: “The only way we will save the planet is by going back to meat eating.

Can bunnies survive without hay?

Rabbits need hay, a good high fiber pellet (free of nuts/seeds/dyed bits), fresh vegetables, and clean water. If your rabbit is allowed to go without food for too long, a serious condition called enteritis can occur.

Can tortoises survive without food?

Rio de Janeiro vet Jeferson Pires explained that Manuela's red-footed species of tortoise, can go for long periods without eating. He said: "They are particularly resilient and can survive for two to three years without food. He said Manuela may have survived by eating termites from the wooden floor.

Can puppies survive without shots?

Unvaccinated puppies. Puppies that are not protected by vaccination are at greater risk of contracting a serious disease. Unprotected puppies may survive without vaccination. There is no doubt that many unvaccinated dogs do survive and thrive.

Can puppies survive without colostrum?

This is especially true of puppies that were orphaned without having received any of their natural mother's colostrum. The colostrum, which is produced during the first 24 hours after giving birth is especially rich in disease-protecting antibodies.

Can my dog survive without teeth?

The good news is that dogs can adapt pretty well if they have some or even all of their teeth removed due to dental issues. If your dog does have to have its teeth removed, it will adapt to living without them, although it could take some time.

How long can a dog live with sarcoma without treatment?

Approximately 85% of these patients are tumor free three years after treatment. By comparison, the majority of dogs with incompletely excised soft tissue sarcomas that receive surgery without follow-up radiation will regrow by one year. For high-grade sarcomas, the long-term prognosis is more guarded.

How long can a dog live with hemangiosarcoma without treatment?

The life expectancy of the patient depends on the extent of the cancer spread, with cardiac hemangiosarcoma being the most serious (survival beyond 4 to 6 months is uncommon, even with extensive and complete treatment), hepatosplenic (liver and spleen) next most serious (slightly longer average survival times), and

Can Lions survive without meat?

For cats, it goes beyond mere preference. Felines evolved to be obligate carnivores; in the wild, they must eat meat to survive. Without them, cats can suffer retinal degeneration, or cardiomyopathy, and possibly urinary-tract problems as well.

Can you survive without carbs?

While we can most certainly survive without sugar, it would be quite difficult to eliminate carbohydrates entirely from your diet. Carbohydrates are the body's main source of energy. In their absence, your body will use protein and fat for energy.

Can a dog recover from parvo without treatment?

In some cases; however, dogs can recover from parvo. When left untreated, the mortality rate of parvo virus infection is around 90%. When treated with more aggressive therapy, parvo mortality rates can drop to 20% to 5%, but not without lasting effects.

Can a dog recover from tick paralysis without treatment?

Treatment of Tick Paralysis in Dogs. In the majority of cases, removal of ticks from your dog will lead to a reduction of symptoms within 24 hours and total recovery within 72 hours. While tick paralysis is very easy to treat, untreated, it can lead to death by respiratory paralysis.

Can a dog get over parvo without treatment?

When treated with more aggressive therapy, parvo mortality rates can drop to 20% to 5%, but not without lasting effects. If parvo is successfully treated, the virus will eventually shed from their body and they can be vaccinated to prevent future infection.

How long can a stray dog survive without food?

According to the vet, healthy dogs and cats can last "three, four, five days without eating, many even longer than that. Food is not the main issue, but water is.

How long can a dog survive without food or water?

According to the vet, healthy dogs and cats can last "three, four, five days without eating, many even longer than that. Food is not the main issue, but water is. If your dog is not eating or drinking water, it can be a big problem.

Can Giardia go away without treatment?

If there are no symptoms or only mild symptoms, no treatment may be needed. Some infections go away on their own within a few weeks. Severe symptoms or symptoms that do not go away. People who work in a daycare center or nursing home, to reduce the spread of disease.

How long can dog lice survive without a host?

Head lice can survive on a human host for approximately 30 days. They generally cannot survive longer than 24 hours off the host. A female louse lays 3-5 eggs a day.

How long can a dog survive without breathing?

A dog that goes without breathing for longer than 3 to 5 minutes can suffer permanent brain damage. After 10 minutes there is essentially no hope of survival.

Can Threadworms go away without treatment?

Very rarely, threadworms can cause other problems. Medicine will kill the worms in the gut, but not the eggs that have been laid around the anus. These can survive for up to 2 weeks outside the body on underwear, bedding etc. This is so that if you scratch in your sleep, you will not touch the skin near the anus.

Can leptospirosis be cured without treatment?

Leptospirosis is treated with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or penicillin, which should be given early in the course of the disease. Intravenous antibiotics may be required for persons with more severe symptoms. Persons with symptoms suggestive of leptospirosis should contact a health care provider.

Can scabies go away without treatment?

Scabies will not go away on its own. It can only be cured with prescription medications that kill the mites. Treatment is a cream or lotion that is applied to the entire body from the neck down in most cases. It is left on for 8 to 14 hours and then washed off.

Can ringworm clear up without treatment?

Without treatment, most cases of ringworm would disappear on their own within several months, but they can become chronic. Ringworm symptoms usually disappear quickly with treatment, but the treatment should be continued for two to four weeks to eliminate all of the fungus.

Do most dogs survive heartworm treatment?

The treatment for heartworm disease takes at least 60 days to complete and consists of a series of drug injections that kills the worms. Your dog should be retested after treatment and six months later to ensure that all of the larvae, microfilariae and adult worms are dead.

Can Giardia get better without treatment?

Many people get better without treatment. But if your symptoms last more than several weeks, or you're likely to spread the parasite, your doctor can give you medication. Metronidazole (Flagyl), nitazoxanide (Alinia), and tinidazole (Tindamax) are among the drugs used to treat giardia infections.

Can cancer just go away without treatment?

The cancer may not grow or spread as long as you're getting treatment. Sometimes when treatment shrinks the cancer, you can take a break until the cancer starts to grow again. But in either of these cases the cancer is still there – it doesn't go away and stay away – it's not cured.

Can HGE kill dogs?

It's most dangerous for small dogs, and although some veterinarians consider toy and miniature breeds between the ages of two and four the most typical HGE patients, males and females of all breeds and ages have been affected. Because HGE in dogs can be fatal, prompt veterinary care is essential.

How long can a human survive without a brain?

The brain can survive for up to about six minutes after the heart stops. The reason to learn cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is that if CPR is started within six minutes of cardiac arrest, the brain may survive the lack of oxygen. After about six minutes without CPR, however, the brain begins to die.

Can a puppy recover from parvo without treatment?

There is no cure for parvo. Your vet will offer your puppy supportive care over the course of the illness, treating symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration, and making sure that your puppy gets adequate nutrition.

Can a baby born without a spleen survive?

Children and adults without a spleen (asplenia) Some people are born without a spleen, or their spleen doesn't work properly. People without a fully working spleen are at increased risk of some life-threatening infections.

Can puppies survive without their mother?

Some puppies may be several weeks old before their mother becomes unable to care for them. In most cases, an entire litter is orphaned rather than a single puppy. Raising an orphaned litter in the complete absence of a mother is time consuming but rewarding.

How long can puppy survive without water?

If your dog is not eating or drinking water, it can be a big problem. Without water, dogs can live 4-5 days, and without food - a maximum of two weeks.

Can an elephant survive without tusks?

African elephants are evolving without tusks because of poaching. Researchers believe the heavy presence of poaching has led elephants here to evolve without tusks, so their human predators have no reason to kill them and steal their tusks for ivory.

Can a newborn puppy survive without its mother?

Newborn pups need a feeding every two to three hours; the frequency drops to four times a day between 2 weeks and 3 weeks of age. Don't feed cow's milk, as this can upset your puppy's digestive tract. You'll need to warm formula to body temperature, testing it inside your wrist to make sure it's not too hot.

Can a baby mouse survive without its mother?

Unless you find a mouse's nest, you are unlikely to encounter baby mice. Juvenile mice: By two weeks of age, their eyes and ears have opened and they have grown hair. By three weeks, the mice are weaned from their mother. They are able to come and go from the nest, finding their own food.

Can a 5 week old puppy survive without Mom?

You must remember the mother usually starts to wean her puppies about 6-7 weeks old. By the time she weans the puppy it can eat dry dog food with no water on it.

Can a 3 week old puppy survive without its mother?

Bottle Feeding. Newborn pups need a feeding every two to three hours; the frequency drops to four times a day between 2 weeks and 3 weeks of age. You'll need a special bottle with a nipple and puppy milk replacement formula. Don't feed cow's milk, as this can upset your puppy's digestive tract.

How do jellyfish survive without a brain?

How Do Jellyfish Live Without A Brain? The thing is, while jellyfish don't have a brain or central nervous system, they do have a very basic set of nerves at the base of their tentacles. These nerves detect touch, temperature, salinity etc. and the jellyfish reflexively respond to these stimuli.

Can Giardia in dogs be cured without treatment?

Unfortunately, regardless of treatment, Giardia may persist. Dogs often reinfect themselves during therapy. Take precautions to reduce exposure. Giardia does not do permanent damage, but once it's gone, a dog may need a little time to heal her intestinal lining.

Can humans get HGE?

However, two forms of the infection are found in humans: Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE) and Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME). Although infection with HGE may occur at any time of the year, infection is most common during the months of June and July.

How long does giardiasis last without treatment?

The worst symptoms of giardiasis typically last for five to seven days, as long as diagnosis and treatment is not delayed. Symptoms can take as long as several months to completely go away after treatment because the intestine needs to repair itself.

How long does giardia last without treatment?

Some people with Giardia infection have no symptoms at all. Symptoms of giardiasis normally begin 1 to 3 weeks after becoming infected. In otherwise healthy people, symptoms of giardiasis may last 2 to 6 weeks. Occasionally, symptoms last longer.

How long does a yeast infection last without treatment?

This depends on two factors: how severe the infection is and how it's treated. Mild yeast infections may clear up in as few as three days. Sometimes, they don't even require treatment. But moderate to severe infections may take one to two weeks to clear.

Will pinworms go away without treatment?

How long does pinworms last? The life cycle of a pinworm is 4 to 6 weeks. Without treatment, infestation will continue as long as fresh eggs are being swallowed, unless a person develops immunity to pinworms, which is unusual before age 15.

Can humans get HGE from dogs?

HGE in dogs is not typically reported to be linked to human illness. However, since the actual cause of HGE is unknown, it is wise to wash hands routinely after handling your dog, your dog's bedding and bowls, and after cleaning up after your dog.

Can humans catch HGE from dogs?

Because HGE in dogs can be fatal, prompt veterinary care is essential. Patients are not usually dehydrated when first examined, but dehydration can develop quickly, leading to hypotension (low blood pressure), an elevated red blood cell count, shock, blood clotting problems, or kidney failure.

Can 5 week old puppy survive without Mom?

At about the age of 2 weeks the mother does not constantly feed the puppies. You must remember the mother usually starts to wean her puppies about 6-7 weeks old. By the time she weans the puppy it can eat dry dog food with no water on it. I do not know how often to feed milk to the puppy.

How long can a dog live with nasal cancer without treatment?

Some complications develop late after therapy and are generally non-treatable. Prognosis – Without treatment the prognosis for nasal carcinoma is approximately 3 months. The median survival time of dogs with epistaxis is 88 days whereas those without epistaxis is 224 days.

How long can a dog live with kidney failure without treatment?

The prognosis for kidney disease is quite variable depending on response to the initial stage of treatment and your ability to perform the follow-up care. We encourage treatment in most situations because many dogs will respond and maintain a good quality of life for up to four years.

How long can flea eggs survive without hatching?

Undisturbed and without a blood meal, a flea can live more than 100 days. On average, they live two to three months. Female fleas cannot lay eggs until after their first blood meal and begin to lay eggs within 36-48 hours after that meal.

Does Giardia in dogs go away without treatment?

Dog strains of Giardia are not known to infect cats, and cat strains are not known to infect dogs. In most cases the infection goes away on its own. But if diarrhea is severe or becomes chronic, then medical attention is required.

Is HGE contagious in dogs?

HGE is not contagious, but about 10 percent of dogs have more than one episode during their lives. Treated early and aggressively, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis has a good prognosis.

Why do dogs get HGE?

The exact cause of HGE remains unknown (idiopathic). Recent research indicates that HGE may be an allergic reaction (food or inhaled). Intestinal parasites and bacteria may also be causes. Dogs who experience HGE may be more prone to developing HGE in the future.

Is HGE in dogs painful?

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is an acute disorder of dogs characterized by vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The main and most disturbing clinical sign is large amounts of bloody diarrhea, very often bright red. Some dogs may have a painful abdomen, decreased appetite, lethargy (fatigue), or fever.

Can my dog die from HGE?

When is it Serious? However, if your pet is having frequent amount of jelly-like bloody diarrhea, vomiting and is weak or lethargic , your pet may be suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) and should be seen by a veterinarian immediately. Sometimes dogs with HGE will go into shock or even die.

Can HGE in dogs be cured?

Standard Treatments for Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis. Dogs who develop HGE can become seriously ill within hours. Untreated canines can die, so don't hesitate to bring your dog in. The prognosis is good once pets receive medical treatment.

Can stress cause HGE in dogs?

Stress, anxiety, and hyperactivity are thought to be possible contributing factors in many cases. Recent research indicates that HGE may be an allergic reaction (food or inhaled). Intestinal parasites and bacteria may also be causes. Dogs who experience HGE may be more prone to developing HGE in the future.

What can cause HGE in dogs?

Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in dogs occurs when large amounts of fluid seeps into the gut. It's not known precisely what causes all cases of HGE in dogs, but it can lead to severe vomiting and bloody diarrhoea in dogs. Sometimes the diarrhoea contains so much blood it resembles raspberry jam.

Can a dog survive lymphoma?

Although chemotherapy does not cure dogs with lymphoma, in most cases it does extend the length and quality of life. With treatment, in dogs that feel well, about 80% – 90% of dogs with lymphoma attain a complete remission with an average survival of 12-14 months.

Can a dog survive parvo?

Most dog owners are aware the canine parvovirus is a very serious, highly contagious disease that is too often fatal. In pets that acquire parvo (typically unvaccinated or immunocompromised dogs), survival can depend on how quickly the virus is diagnosed and treated.