Do all Border Collies have white tip tail?

A very funny dog with a white tip tail

Best Answer

Besides the usual white "collie" markings of collar, blaze, feet and tip of tail, Border Collies sometimes come with larger amounts of white, such as half-white faces, like Bizzi and Teddy, below left, which is a very common pattern in the breed.

All these patterns can come in all colors, not just black-and-white.

Training Border Collies (The Basics)

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Why do border collies have white tip tail?

It curls up to form a “J.” Border Collies have a white tip on their tail which has a specific purpose. It's called the “shepherd's lantern” and helped a shepherd see in the dark as he followed his dog home at the end of the day. Setter breeds have a feathered tail.

Do Border Collies have curly tails?

However, with the advent of show Border Collies, coats in dogs bred from show stock are becoming heavier. Coats may be straight to curly - this is not a standard, but a fact. Some young Border Collies will hold their tails up or even curled when in a "play" mode.

Do all Border Collies have long hair?

The Coats. All border collies grow hair, even the short-haired or smooth-coat ones. Although hairless varieties of dogs exist, all border collies have hair. Longer-haired border collies have coarse fur that either has a subtle wave to it or is even in appearance.

The Bines Episode 1: The White Tip Tail Dog

Why do beagles have white tipped tails?

Many beagles have a white-tipped tail. This white tip was bred into Beagles so that they would be visible when they had their noses to the ground during a hunt. A Beagle's incredible sense of smell makes him a great working dog. This team of dogs is called The Beagle Brigade.

Do Border Collies tails curl?

Some young Border Collies will hold their tails up or even curled when in a "play" mode. HEAD: The Border Collie's head is wide, but not coarse, and the muzzle is slightly long in proportion, and pointy but not sharp. In other words, a wide or blunt muzzle is not indicative of the breed.

What dogs have a white tipped tail?

A white tip helps hunters find their dogs during a hunt. Foxhounds also have a tail that's held high with a slight curve at the tip. Great Danes, American Staffordshire Terriers, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs and some Pointer breeds have a tail described as a sword.

Are white border collies rare?

No. Being white is not the cause. There are Border Collies that have a very unique coloration called Merle Border Collies. If two of these Border Collies are Bred there is a good chance that some of the litter of puppies will be deaf, blind or both.

Are all Border Collies hyper?

Border collies are notoriously energetic dogs. A hyperactive, exuberant nature is considered a breed trait, particularly noticed in the first half of a border collie's life span. But even a border collie can be TOO hyperactive, and such an instance might be a symptom of a more complex issue, such as separation anxiety.

10 Fascinating Facts About the Border Collie

What health problems do border collies have?

This breed, which has a lifespan of 10 to 14 years, is prone to minor health problems such as seizures, progressive retinal atrophy, osteochondritis dissecans, lens luxation, hypothyroidism, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), and Collie eye anomaly (CEA), and major ailments like canine hip dysplasia (CHD).

Do some border collies have short hair?

All border collies grow hair, even the short-haired or smooth-coat ones. Although hairless varieties of dogs exist, all border collies have hair. Their fur is thick and soft.

Why do white tailed deer have white tails?

The deer's coat is a reddish-brown in the spring and summer and turns to a grey-brown throughout the fall and winter. The deer can be recognized by the characteristic white underside to its tail. It raises its tail when it is alarmed to warn the predator that it has been detected.

Can Border collies have short hair?

All border collies grow hair, even the short-haired or smooth-coat ones. Although hairless varieties of dogs exist, all border collies have hair.

Do Border Collies wander?

The Border Collie is very hyper and needs a lot of exercise every day. Unlike some dogs Border Collies do not tend so wander away and dislike going off property without their owners. They are extremely loyal to their owners and make very good one on one companion.

All you need to know about Border Collies, Tales with Tails, Episode 5

Do Border Collies stink?

Because Border Collies should not have a strong odor, bathing should be necessary only when your dog starts feeling dirty to you, or if the dog has rolled in something noxious. If your Border Collie starts to smell bad soon after a bath, a trip to the vet for a check for skin and ear problems is probably in order.

Do Border Collies bite?

If they're not properly socialized and trained from a young age, Border Collies may even resort to aggressive behaviors. Dogs herd by a combination of barking, body movement, and nipping to direct the herded animal to the proper direction. The truth of the matter is, ANY dog can bite.

Do all dogs have tails?

No problem. These dogs go without tails (or much of a tail, anyway), and they like it that way. While many dog breeds have traditionally had their tails docked, these 7 breeds are born without a wagger. They include the French bulldog, Boston terrier, Welsh corgi, and some lesser-known beauties, too.

Do Border terriers have docked tails?

Some caveats. At least one breed of working terrier does not have a docked tail -- the border terrier -- and neither do working dachshunds. The tail on a border, however, is a very solid thing and is not easily damaged.

Do Border Collies bark?

Do Border Collies Bark a Lot? Border collies are active, intelligent dogs who do not always make great pets without the right environment and training. Because they have so much energy and want to keep busy they tend to bark a lot when they are not being challenged.

Can Border collies have blue eyes?

In the Border Collie, brown eyes are most common, particularly in black-and-white and tricolored dogs. Dogs of any color can have one eye or both eyes blue. Some people believe that the blue eyes in a Border Collie come from a Husky ancester, but this is patently untrue. Blue has always appeared in the breed.

Can purebred border collies have spots?

Gold Border Collies may also be known to some as Australian Reds or yellow/tan. Tricolors are quite common among Border Collies. Sable dogs have cream- or tan-colored coats with dark tips. These sable markings are seen on some spots on the dog's body.

Do Border Collies get cold?

Border collies tolerate cold weather, but cannot live outside in it.

Do Border Collies get lonely?

Border Collies get lonely and bored if locked in the backyard too long on heir own. Border Collies are not a breed that inexperienced dog owners should get unless they have access to good advice and help with training their Border Collie puppy.

Do Border Collies smell bad?

Because Border Collies should not have a strong odor, bathing should be necessary only when your dog starts feeling dirty to you, or if the dog has rolled in something noxious. If your Border Collie starts to smell bad soon after a bath, a trip to the vet for a check for skin and ear problems is probably in order.

Do Border Collies get groomed?

Do Border Collies Need a Haircut? The border collie is a working man's dog, and can sport two different coat types to keep him comfortable in all kinds of weather. The smooth coat is short and sleek, while the rough is longer and coarser. Grooming is low-maintenance, and both coats require only minimal trimming.

What breed of dog has a white tipped tail?

A white tip helps hunters find their dogs during a hunt. Foxhounds also have a tail that's held high with a slight curve at the tip. Great Danes, American Staffordshire Terriers, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs and some Pointer breeds have a tail described as a sword.

Why do border collies stare?

Border Collies stare or 'give the eye' because that is what they are bred to do. These highly intelligent, herding dogs have been trained to manage herds of sheep with their intense stare. The Border Collie is acting on a predatory behavior handed down from his ancestor, the wolf.

Why do deer have white tails?

The deer's coat is a reddish-brown in the spring and summer and turns to a grey-brown throughout the fall and winter. The deer can be recognized by the characteristic white underside to its tail. It raises its tail when it is alarmed to warn the predator that it has been detected.

Why do border collies have different Coloured eyes?

A border collie cross with odd-coloured eyes who was rejected by hundreds of families has found a new home. Due to a condition known as heterochromia, Molly has one very pale blue eye and one brown, caused by a lack of pigment in the eye.

Do Border Collies play fetch?

Fetch is a relatively simple game that will keep you and your pup entertained for hours at a time. You can start off teaching him to fetch a small toy or a rubber ball, but with time and patience, you can train your Border Collie to fetch just about anything he can carry.

Do Border Collies get jealous?

This new findings support the view that jealousy is a primordial emotion seen not only in humans, but in other animals as well, researchers said. Christine Harris, professor of psychology at UC San Diego, with Samwise, one of three border collies to inspire the study on dog jealousy.

Do Border Collies swim well?

By in large, Border Collies are excellent swimmers. They can swim circles around most people. There are Border Collies that are trained as water rescue dogs - some dive to the depths of lakes in search of corpses and drowning victims - and some leap from helicopters into water in search and rescue missions.

Do Border Collies calm down?

How to Calm a Border Collie. Energetic dogs such as border collies often require more stimulation than other breeds to burn off excess energy. Border collies are notoriously energetic dogs. Allow the dog plenty of exercise throughout the day.

Do Border Collies run away?

If your Border Collie has run away one too many times, it may be time to step up and take action. For generations, Border Collies have been bred as working sheepdogs, having an almost obsessive zeal for running and sprinting.

Do Border Collies bark much?

Do Border Collies Bark a Lot? Border collies are active, intelligent dogs who do not always make great pets without the right environment and training. Because they have so much energy and want to keep busy they tend to bark a lot when they are not being challenged.

Do Border Collies run off?

If your Border Collie has run away one too many times, it may be time to step up and take action. By nature, Border Collies are highly intelligent, sensitive, and eager to please but they are also one of the most challenging to live with.

Why do border collies bite?

There are a few reasons for this behavior, and you can eliminate it with training. The Border Collie is arguably one of the most beautiful dog breeds around. However, some Border Collies can also display some undesirable traits if you're not a sheepherder — namely, nipping or biting.

Do Border Collies get haircuts?

Do Border Collies Need a Haircut? The border collie is a working man's dog, and can sport two different coat types to keep him comfortable in all kinds of weather. The smooth coat is short and sleek, while the rough is longer and coarser. Grooming is low-maintenance, and both coats require only minimal trimming.

Do all white dogs have problems?

Dogs with large amounts of white caused by the homozygous piebald allele (sp), such as Bull Terriers, Boxers and Dalmatians, can also have some of the same health problems as double merles, particularly deafness (which is a big problem in Dalmatians). The merle gene can also cause eye deformities when homozygous.

Do all dogs have white skin?

A dogs skin colour (pigmentation) does not have to match their fur colour. Often they coincide, but not always. For instance, many white coated dogs will exhibit dots or patches of dark skin under the white fur. A dog's skin can become darker and it's totally normal.

Are border collies dangerous?

And like all nuclear power, it can be quite dangerous if it is not controlled. If Border Collies are so smart, then why aren't they easy to train? If you are not a precise sort of trainer (most people aren't), then trying to train an intelligent Border Collie can be a frustrating task.

Are border collies stubborn?

They're expected to make on-the-job decisions without human input, and that often translates into an extremely independent attitude. The Border Collie can also be put into the stubborn herding breed category. But with the right kind of training and socialization, Collies make great family pets.

Are border collies smart?

Border Collies are considered one of the smartest dog breeds around. They excel at herding sheep and can learn voice commands, follow directions from a whistle or hand signals, and can understand more words than most dogs. Border Collies are smart, but just how smart are they?

Are border collies loving?

The Border Collie is an extremely intense breed of dog that can control the movement of sheep by simply using his "eye". The eye-lock stare can look very intimidating. Border Collies are wonderful, simply incredible. They are affectionate dogs, known to truly hug their owners.

Are border collies aggressive?

Aggression is not a common trait in Border Collies in general, but it can happen. The causes and reasons behind the dog growling, barking or even biting can vary depending on the situation. When dealing with an aggressive Border Collie remember that unlike other behavior problems this one can have serious consequences.

Are border collies obsessive?

Obsessive Disorder in Border Collies. Border collies are herding dogs, which means they're kind of obsessive intrinsically.

Are border collies timid?

That said, it's possible an individual border collie will be shy, but such a trait is not typical of the breed. Shyness, as in people, is part of a dog's personality; your dog may never become a typical social border collie, but your efforts may help him become more outgoing.

Do all Huskies have curly tails?

Siberian Husky tails are heavily furred; these dogs will often curl up with their tails over their faces and noses in order to provide additional warmth. The tail should be expressive, held low when the dog is relaxed, and curved upward in a "sickle" shape when excited or interested in something.

Do all cockapoos have docked tails?

A cockapoo puppy is born with a full length tail and depending on the breeder may have its tail docked. There are two ways that the tail may be docked. Some breeders use a veterinarian.

Do all Shiba Inus have curly tails?

A curled tail – sometimes called ring rail – is a dog tail that curls upward towards the back to form a small curl. Northern, cold weather breeds like the Shiba Inu, Akita, and Siberian Husky have curled or sickle shaped tails that actually help them retain body heat and keep warm during the harsh winters.

Do all pugs have curly tails?

Since the tail is a bone and cartilage appendage of the spine, the physical trait of it curling is due to a deviation in the spine in which the vertebrae is wedged-shaped, causing the tail to curl when held naturally. Therefore, just about all Pugs do have a curly tail. There are some Pugs that have a loose tail.

Are border collies fast?

A team of dogs can maintain an average speed of 10-11 mph and run for hours, covering around 150 miles in a day. The Border Collie is a speedy and agile herder with a top speed between 20-30mph, a speed they can maintain as they quickly twist and turn to keep livestock in line.

Are border collies scared?

Many herding type dogs, including Border Collies, are anxious and fearful dogs. Some of this issue may be due to their sensitive and attentive natures.

Do Border Collies protect their owners?

Border Collies were bred for their performance. All sheepdog breeds are known for their intelligence and trainability. Instead of ravaging livestock or a flock of birds, sheepdogs have the instinct to protect them. In addition, Border Collies are able to serve and respond to their owner's commands.

Do border collies like to dig?

Though your Border Collie has no need to herd sheep at home, his instincts may compel him to dig a hole to lay in. This behavior is hardwired into your Border Collie. With this in mind, your Border Collie might be digging because he is bored. If there isn't anything else to do, might as well go dig a hole.

Do Border Collies get along with chickens?

Everyone should have their own flock of chickens, if only for the eggs. If you are going to have chickens, then why not a Border Collie to herd them around the yard and back into their coop at night? Border Collies are, by their very nature, great herders.

Do Border Collies make good service dogs?

Border Collies can make excellent service dogs for the right type of handler. Owners of this breed state that it can be mentally and physically exhausting, even exasperating, trying to keep up with a Border Collie. This dog is a herding animal, which means it has an overwhelming urge to gather a flock.

Do Border Collies bark a lot?

Border collies like to "talk" about what they see. Border collies are active, intelligent dogs who do not always make great pets without the right environment and training. Because they have so much energy and want to keep busy they tend to bark a lot when they are not being challenged.

Do Border Collies need to be groomed?

The Border Collie has a double coat with the guard coat longer than the undercoat and needs to be groomed every 4 – 8 weeks, with more frequent grooming during the shedding seasons of spring and fall when they change coats. As long as the undercoat is removed the outer guard coat will provide shade for your dog.

Do you have to tip at an all inclusive resort?

If gratuities are not included, you can follow the same basic hotel guidelines: $1 per bag for the bellhop, $5 per day for housekeeping (left every day), nothing extra for room service (it's included on the bill), and a sliding scale for concierges, depending on the difficulty of the task.

Are border collies loyal?

As a loyal and faithful breed, Border Collies are very much “one person dogs”. Border collies can be affectionate toward friends but reserved toward strangers and make excellent watchdogs. They are both even-tempered and protective and thrive on human companionship.

Are border collies difficult?

If you are not a precise sort of trainer (most people aren't), then trying to train an intelligent Border Collie can be a frustrating task. Border Collies have a difficult time learning to generalize, basically because it takes a dog that is less "critical" to be able to follow a sloppy command.

Are border collies cuddly?

The Border Collie is an extremely intense breed of dog that can control the movement of sheep by simply using his "eye". The eye-lock stare can look very intimidating. Border Collies are wonderful, simply incredible. They are affectionate dogs, known to truly hug their owners.

Are border collies barkers?

Some can become nuisance barkers. Borders are very people-oriented and are wonderful family dogs. Some Borders are not good with other dogs or cats, and some are great. Border Collies are the best working breed in the world for sheepherding.

Was heißt Border Collie?

Das Wort Collie bedeutet nützlicher Gegenstand und steht inzwischen für eine ganze Reihe von Hütehunden, die Collies. Von der FCI wird der Border Collie seit 1976 anerkannt. Die International Sheep Dog Society hat bis heute noch keinen Rassestandard für Border Collies herausgebracht.

How much exercise should a border collie puppy have?

Although as much as they possibly can should be the right answer, but at least 20-30 minutes of running everyday is ideal. However, undoubtedly your Border Collie would definitely prefer a lot more. There are several easy ways to make your dog exercises that it needs to stay fit and healthy.

Are border collies playful?

Temperament and needs. Border Collies require considerably more daily physical exercise and mental stimulation than many other breeds. The Border Collie is widely considered to be the most intelligent dog breed. In this role, due to their working heritage, Border Collies are very demanding, playful, and energetic.

Are border collies affectionate?

The Border Collie is an extremely intense breed of dog that can control the movement of sheep by simply using his "eye". They are affectionate dogs, known to truly hug their owners.

Are border collies neurotic?

Border Collies are widely acknowledged as the most intelligent dog breed. But unprepared owners can find their Border Collies becoming neurotic, compulsive, and even bad-mannered. Border Collies were bred for herding. It's instinctual.

Are border collies gentle?

Border Collies are a gentle, loyal, playful, and above all intelligent breed.

Are border collies sensitive?

Border Collies are extremely sight and sound sensitive. They see things that move even slightly (you may not see). Most Border Collies display SOME but not all of such quirks in their personality.

Do border collies like to swim?

By in large, Border Collies are excellent swimmers. There are some individuals, like individual people, that just plain stink at swimming but most are excellent at it. Lowered body fat may make it more difficult to float but it does not make a dog (or a person) any worse of a swimmer.

Do Border Collies make good family pets?

Borders are very people-oriented and are wonderful family dogs. Some Borders are not good with other dogs or cats, and some are great. Border Collies are the best working breed in the world for sheepherding. They also excel at performance activities such as agility, obedience, flyball, and freestyle, among others.

Do Border Collies love their owners?

As a Border Collie owner, you are probably able to answer “yes” without hesitation. Border Collies are known for their unwavering devotion to their owners, They are affectionate, loving, and loyal creatures, sometimes to a fault. They are also bred to be working dogs and to look to their owners for directions.

Why do border collie puppies bite?

The Right Approach To Stop Border Collie Puppy Biting. That's a common problem because herding comes naturally to Border Collies as it's a part of their instinctive behavior. Puppy biting is a normal behavior and generally goes away with time as they grow and understand it while living with their owners.

What do most border collies die from?

The Border collie can often live as long as 18 years or more. The most common causes of death are old age, cancer and cerebral vascular afflictions.

How do you bathe a border collie?

You can bathe your Border Collie either indoors or outside. If you're going to do it outside then it's a good idea to keep the dog on a leash. Steps to Bathing a Border Collie Step 1 – Gather all of the materials. Step 2 – Get your puppy ready. Step 3 – Soak your dog. Step 4 – Shampoo the puppy. Step 5 – Rinse.

Do Border Collies make good house pets?

Border Collies can make good family pets, but only for those dogs that do not have the intense herding instincts and for the families prepared to deal with the ramifications of this behavior. To a Border Collie, a child is basically a sheep without much wool - a sheep in wolf's (kids) clothing if you will.

How do you tame a border collie?

Method 3 House Training Your Border Collie Start young. Keep your puppy in a confined space. Take your puppy out often. Reward the behavior you want. Take the puppy outside if she starts going to the bathroom. Keep on a schedule. Be consistent. Don't try negative reinforcement.

Do Border Collies get along with Labradors?

Labradors and Border Collies are both active, intelligent and loving breeds of dog. So it's hardly surprising that plenty of people are considering a cross between the two. Mixed breed dogs are extremely popular right now. Border Collie Lab mixes are unique and adorable, like many of the other mixed breeds.

Are border collies good dogs?

Borders are very people-oriented and are wonderful family dogs. Some Borders are not good with other dogs or cats, and some are great. Border Collies are the best working breed in the world for sheepherding. They also excel at performance activities such as agility, obedience, flyball, and freestyle, among others.

Are border collies fence jumpers?

Border Collies have also been known to simply take the collar off rendering this dog fence useless. Although not usually diggers, the Border Collie should have a dog fence that sits on or goes into the ground. If you have a 5 foot fence and a 1 foot mound next to it, a Border Collie may find it easy to jump over.

Hat ein Border Collie Unterwolle?

Der Border Collie hat ein dichtes Haarkleid und viel Unterwolle. Er verliert über das ganze Jahr Haare - besonders beim Fellwechsel.

Are border collies loving dogs?

The Border Collie is an extremely intense breed of dog that can control the movement of sheep by simply using his "eye". The eye-lock stare can look very intimidating. Border Collies are wonderful, simply incredible. They are affectionate dogs, known to truly hug their owners.

Are border collies family dogs?

Borders are very people-oriented and are wonderful family dogs. Some Borders are not good with other dogs or cats, and some are great. Border Collies are the best working breed in the world for sheepherding. They also excel at performance activities such as agility, obedience, flyball, and freestyle, among others.

Are border collies high energy?

Living With: Border collies are extremely energetic dogs and must have the opportunity to get lots of exercise. They love to run. They also need ample attention from their owners and a job to do, whether that be herding livestock or fetching a ball.

Do Border Collies make good therapy dogs?

Do Border Collies Make Good Service Dogs? When choosing a service dog, whether it be for physical or psychiatric disability, it has to be “need over breed.” Let's face it, you may love the Chihuahua breed, but when it comes to aiding you with specific tasks, this little guy may not be up for the job.

Do Border Collies eat a lot?

Your Border Collie should mature to a average adult weight of 30 to 50 pounds, so feeding Border Collies will not be a major expense. For a great alternative to kibble and food we highly recommend for Border Collies see our Raw Feeding Dogs section.

Do Border Collies need a companion?

Border Collies are high-energy, intense dogs that like a job and plenty of exercise. They are the workaholics of the AKC Herding Group and need a companion that can match their energy. A dog with the same nature is good company for a Border Collie mix and will help to provide the exercise the dog needs.

Do Border Collies get separation anxiety?

Border Collies that suffer from separation anxiety can't be blamed for any damage they do while left alone because they are under stress and fear. Leave the house only for a few minutes at a time and make sure your Border Collie sees you leaving.

How do you discipline a border collie?

There are many things you can do to help your Border Collie learn respect for you: Play at your Border Collie puppy's Level. Teach your Border Collie puppy you are the Pack Leader from the Beginning. Always Eat First. Keep Training Times Short. Start Training in a Familiar Area. Speak Firmly not Angrily.

Do border collies like to play fetch?

Fetch is a relatively simple game that will keep you and your pup entertained for hours at a time. You can start off teaching him to fetch a small toy or a rubber ball, but with time and patience, you can train your Border Collie to fetch just about anything he can carry.

Do Border Collies shed a lot?

Just like any other dog breed, border collies also shed their coat throughout the year, and during spring and fall season they shed excessively. The only reason why my dad don't get along with our Dina (Border Collie) is because he hates it when she shed hair and it sticks to the carpet and clothes.

Do Border Collie ears stand up?

Sometimes Border Collies will have one erect ear and one semi-erect, like Komet does. Often Border Collies have ears that are held all the way down, or with most of the ear tipped forward - these latter are sometimes called "tag ears" (see the pup at the bottom with the one blue eye).

How bad do Border Collies shed?

The unfortunate answer for most is, yes. They are a long-haired double-coated breed and tend to shed a lot. Twice a year, things can go from bad to worse pretty quickly — in fall and spring, they shed excessively. Many owners describe Border Collie shedding as a full-time maintenance job.

What age do border collies live to?

Border Collie Lifespan Average. The average life expectancy of a Border Collie is 12 years. Their average overall range is between 10-14 but in some cases, they can live to be around 17. The leading cause of death is cancer at 23% and old age at 17%.

Why do border collies roll in poop?

Another theory is that Border Collies roll in poop to leave their own scent on it, and this is a highly territorial behavior. The verdict is in: You need to prevent Laura's poop rolling habit. You can do this by observing the triggers and behaviors your Border Collie exhibits right before rolling in that pile of stink.

Do Border Collies make good pets?

Border Collies can make good family pets, but only for those dogs that do not have the intense herding instincts and for the families prepared to deal with the ramifications of this behavior. To a Border Collie, a child is basically a sheep without much wool - a sheep in wolf's (kids) clothing if you will.

Why do border collies run in circles?

In fact, it is thought to be a genetic trait that allows Border Collies to communicate when they are bored. As such, if your Border Collie doesn't have room to achieve these same speeds, he will start running around in circles because he needs to burn off excess energy.

Is it better to have two border collies?

Two border collies are great company for each other when you cannot be with them. They can also provide each other with much of their daily exercise as long as they are of a similar size. Watching two border collies interacting with each other is better than watching any television program.

Do Border Collie puppy ears stand up?

Sometimes Border Collies will have one erect ear and one semi-erect, like Komet does. Often Border Collies have ears that are held all the way down, or with most of the ear tipped forward - these latter are sometimes called "tag ears" (see the pup at the bottom with the one blue eye).