Does an electric fence have to make a complete loop?

Electric Fence Problems Solved!

Best Answer

The electric fence does not need to be a complete loop to shock.

The electric fence charger sends out current to the electric fence wire about once a second to the wire.

then back to the electric fence charger and completes the circuit.

The animal gets a shock and stays away from the fence.

DIY Electric Fence Circuit

Previous QuestionDoes an electric fence need to be grounded?
Next QuestionHow do I register my AKC dog with CKC?

Related Questions

Does an electric dog fence have to make a complete loop?

The electric fence does not need to be a complete loop to shock. then back to the electric fence charger and completes the circuit. The animal gets a shock and stays away from the fence.

Does electric dog fence have to be a loop?

The most popular of all the layouts, the Perimeter Dog Fence Layout creates one big loop around the front and back of your home. It allows your dog access to the entire property. Notice that you use twisted wire to connect the transmitter with the boundary loop that you have created.

Does an electric dog fence have to be buried?

From a functional standpoint the electric dog fence wire really doesn't have to be buried at all. If done properly you can avoid both the eyesore and trip hazards without having to bury the wire. Believe it or not a non-buried fence wire holds up just as well as buried wire.

Setting Up and Solving Common Myths about Electric Fence

How old does a puppy have to be to use an electric fence?

The minimum age recommended by one underground fencing manufacturer, Invisible Fence, is 8 weeks. The pup at 8 weeks is past the tiny baby puppy stage and is more capable of more intensive training. However, a pup this age may be too young to properly train for an underground fence.

Does an electric fence need to be grounded?

If the power is not sufficient, you may need to add another grounding rod to your electric fence grounding system. Most fences will require two or three grounding rods positioned about 10 ft. apart, near the starting point of the fence.

How old does a dog have to be for an electric fence?

Your Puppy Should Be At Least 8 Weeks Old. A puppy needs to be around 8 weeks old before they can really start learning how to react to the invisible fence and understand where their boundary lies.

Does an electric fence use much power?

Watts = The watts per hour consumed by the electric fence charger during operation. Normal you will be running your charger on a continuous basis of 24/7 and the utility company billing period is normally for a 30 day period.

How much electricity does an electric fence use?

This is assuming that you have a standard mains unit that plugs into a standard 110V outlet. Watts = The watts per hour consumed by the electric fence charger during operation.

Do's & Don'ts of Setting Up Electric Fencing

Can an electric fence harm a dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

How old does my dog have to be to use an electric fence?

There are a couple things to consider when training a new pet to the Invisible Fence® Brand system. Your puppy should be at least 8 weeks old. A puppy should be able to perform basic training commands such as sit, stay and come, before introducing him to the Invisible Fence® Brand system.

Will an electric fence kill a chicken?

A Fence That Leaks, But in a Good Way. If you've ever had a predator get into a chicken yard fenced in with chicken wire, you know that the the predator can kill every single chicken: they can't escape. In short, these one-wire and two-wire fences aren't 100% effective.

Will an electric fence kill a cat?

In a word, no. Electric fences cause shocks, which might not be safe for your cat. Coyotes have been known to kill cats and dogs, so if your cat goes onto the greenbelt he will be at risk.

How much does an electric fence for a dog cost?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

How Electric Fencing Works

Will an electric fence kill a dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

Can an electric fence kill a dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

How much does it cost to have an electric dog fence installed?

Average Cost of an Electric Fence. Most invisible electric fences and collars come in packages and are available for purchase at pet stores or online for anywhere from $100 to $400, which does not cover installation or additional accessories.

Does electric dog fence have to be buried?

From a functional standpoint the electric dog fence wire really doesn't have to be buried at all. If done properly you can avoid both the eyesore and trip hazards without having to bury the wire. Believe it or not a non-buried fence wire holds up just as well as buried wire.

How much electricity does an invisible fence use?

Average Cost of an Electric Fence. Most invisible electric fences and collars come in packages and are available for purchase at pet stores or online for anywhere from $100 to $400, which does not cover installation or additional accessories. Wiring and a collar are an average of $50 each.

Can touching an electric fence kill you?

Are Electric Fences a Serious Safety risk to Humans? The voltage being sent through the wires is high, but the current or amplification (amps) is very low. A 220 volt or a 110 volt shock will hurt just as much as a 10,000-volt shock, as long as the current or amps are the same.

Is an electric fence safe for dogs?

But if you're thinking that an “invisible fence” is a safe way to give your dog some time outdoors, think again. Like us, dogs are made of flesh and blood and nerve endings, three things that don't mix well with electricity. Invisible fences deliver a painful shock when dogs cross a buried electrical wire.

How much electricity does an invisible dog fence use?

Average Cost of an Electric Fence. Most invisible electric fences and collars come in packages and are available for purchase at pet stores or online for anywhere from $100 to $400, which does not cover installation or additional accessories. Wiring and a collar are an average of $50 each.

Will an electric fence hurt my dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. The correction a dog receives from a dog fence or other “shock collar” is actually not a shock at all.

How many joules is an electric fence?

Even though our 12-joule unit is rated at 16 stored joules, what matters is that the 12 joules are what gets through the output transformer and onto the fence. Output joules are approximately 70% of the stored joules.

How does an electric fence work for dogs?

A transmitter, usually placed in your basement or garage, sends a radio signal along the wire. The radio signal is picked up by your pet's Computer Collar® Receiver, which emits a warning sound when your pet approaches the Invisible Boundary®.

How much does an electric fence cost per month?

Homeowners must typically replace the batteries every 3 to 4 months, which costs between $60 and $90 per year, depending on the type of battery. Average Cost of an Electric Fence. Typical Cost for Installing an Electric Fence$923 to $1,344Charger$50 to $300Voltage Meter$5 to $30Batteries$60 to $90 annually3 autres lignes

How much does an electric dog fence cost?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

Can dogs sense an electric fence?

With the super-hero-ability ears that dogs are equipped with, it's no wonder they're able to hear the electric currents buzzing through the electric fence you've hooked up. Dogs can hear about twice the Hertz frequency that people can - humans are stuck at a mere 20-20,000 hertz.

Can an electric fence hurt my dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

Does electric fence use much electricity?

This is assuming that you have a standard mains unit that plugs into a standard 220V outlet. Watts = The watts per hour consumed by the electric fence energiser during operation. 1000 = Dividing by the number 1000 places the total into kilowatt-hours, which is what most utility companies use as the rate of consumption.

Will an electric fence keep a dog in?

Electric fences use a collar that shocks the dog when they get too close to the fence line. In learning this, the dog stays within the set boundary. The fence may keep your dog in, but it won't keep others out! So if you're worried about people or other dogs wandering onto your property, an electric fence won't help.

Can I use an electric fence for a dog?

One of the biggest issues however, is that shock collars simply don't work on 30% of dogs. That means for every 10 wireless electric fence installations 3 dogs simply run right through. The results from Schalke's study indicate that electronic collars are extremely risky to use even for the short term.

At what age can a puppy Use an electric fence?

Your Puppy Should Be At Least 8 Weeks Old. A puppy needs to be around 8 weeks old before they can really start learning how to react to the invisible fence and understand where their boundary lies.

Do I have to bury my electric dog fence?

From a functional standpoint the electric dog fence wire really doesn't have to be buried at all. If done properly you can avoid both the eyesore and trip hazards without having to bury the wire. Believe it or not a non-buried fence wire holds up just as well as buried wire.

Does rain affect electric fence?

Electric Fence In The Rain. Their area was subject to regular and often heavy rainfall. So they asked us: “How does an electric fence actually cope with wet weather? ….

How much does it cost to install an electric dog fence?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

Does snow affect electric fence?

The primary reason that electric fences depower in the winter is due to ice and snow interfering with circuits. Water is a great electricity conductor, but ice isn't. Winter air can dry out the soil, making it a less efficient conductor. Spacing: Keep your ground rods spaced at least 10 feet apart.

Does electric fence hurt dogs?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

How old should a dog be to use an electric fence?

There are a couple things to consider when training a new pet to the Invisible Fence® Brand system. Your puppy should be at least 8 weeks old. A puppy should be able to perform basic training commands such as sit, stay and come, before introducing him to the Invisible Fence® Brand system.

Can peeing on an electric fence kill you?

Nonetheless, though it may be rare, there are a handful of cases in which an individual (always male, it seems) has died when a strong electric current traveled up his urine stream. "MythBusters" also found that peeing on an electric fence can be a shocking experience.

Can you be electrocuted by peeing on an electric fence?

"MythBusters" also found that peeing on an electric fence can be a shocking experience. Because the fence is higher off the ground than a train track is, urine won't have time to separate into droplets, and the current can travel up the stream.

Should I get an electric fence for my dog?

Overall the invisible fence collar is a safe way to train your dog as to his boundaries on your property; however, it is not recommended that a dog should be left outside without supervision, as the invisible fence does not keep other animals out of your property.

What happens if I touch an electric fence?

What happens to your body if you touch an electric fence? One of the most obvious effects of touching an electrical component, such as the wires of an electric fencing in Perth, is that a person may feel a painful jolt. Burns to external and internal body tissue can occur on contact with a working electric fence.

Should I use an electric fence for my dog?

At the risk of stating the obvious, it's important to remember that an Invisible Fence system is *not* a true physical barrier. Even if it's effective at keeping your dog in the yard, it does nothing at all to keep other animals or humans out. In some areas, this may not be a major concern.

What if you pee on an electric fence?

The stream of urine had come into contact with the 600 volts of the third rail. The current had coursed up the stream to cause the burns on his body as the electricity entered it." "MythBusters" also found that peeing on an electric fence can be a shocking experience.

What happens if you touch an electric fence?

What happens to your body if you touch an electric fence? One of the most obvious effects of touching an electrical component, such as the wires of an electric fencing in Perth, is that a person may feel a painful jolt. Burns to external and internal body tissue can occur on contact with a working electric fence.

Are electric fences cruel to dogs?

Most dogs can easily climb a traditional chain link fence. Owners that purchase shock collars think they are providing their dog with a safe area to play in – however, as we have shown, many dogs are actually harmed by this inhumane product.

How long does electric fence battery last?

They should last a good number of years, although it is important to make sure they are never fully discharged. For 'average' energisers, you will typically need to charge the battery every 3 to 5 weeks, depending on the condition of the fence, the power of the energiser and the amount of vegetation.

How much does electric fencing cost?

On average, electric fences cost around R150 per metre installed and R1 500 for the control box plus installation fees.

How does dog electric fence work?

It's almost like the dog sees a fence that's not there. Some invisible fence systems feature wires buried in the ground around a set perimeter, such as a yard. A transmitter connected to the wiring emits a radio signal that travels throughout the underground wire.

Can a electric fence kill a dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

Will a electric fence kill a dog?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

How old does a dog have to be to use an invisible fence?

Your Puppy Should Be At Least 8 Weeks Old. A puppy needs to be around 8 weeks old before they can really start learning how to react to the invisible fence and understand where their boundary lies.

How old does a puppy have to be to use an invisible fence?

There are a couple things to consider when training a new pet to the Invisible Fence® Brand system. Your puppy should be at least 8 weeks old. A puppy should be able to perform basic training commands such as sit, stay and come, before introducing him to the Invisible Fence® Brand system.

What happens to your body when you touch an electric fence?

What happens to your body if you touch an electric fence? One of the most obvious effects of touching an electrical component, such as the wires of an electric fencing in Perth, is that a person may feel a painful jolt. This is an electric shock and can be described as an uncomfortable sensation.

How many volts should my electric fence have?

The voltage of an electric fence should vary from about 2000 to about 10,000 volts.

How old does a dog have to be for an invisible fence?

Your Puppy Should Be At Least 8 Weeks Old. A puppy needs to be around 8 weeks old before they can really start learning how to react to the invisible fence and understand where their boundary lies.

Do electric fences hurt dogs?

The simple answer is no. You don't want to hurt your dog, and we certainly don't either. Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. Unlike the shock you feel when you touch a physical electric fence, the correction from a dog collar is generated by a battery.

Do electric dog fences work?

This doesn't affect rankings. Our review process. An invisible dog fence, also called an electric fence, is a wired fence placed underground. This creates an electrically charged boundary that keeps your pet within the confines of your yard without a physical fence.

Can electric fences cause fires?

Electric Fencing in Dry Conditions. There is a misconception that dry vegetation touching an electric fence can cause fires – this is extremely unlikely. In order to create a short, vegetation needs to be damp or green so therefore the vegetation will not ignite.

Can electric fence kill animals?

At the opposite extreme, an electric chair operates on only about 2,000 volts, but the high amperage is enough to kill. With an electric fence, the goal is to sting or startle the animal without causing harm, so electric fences operate with low amperage and higher voltage.

Are electric dog fences safe?

What's Best for You and Your Dog? Overall the invisible fence collar is a safe way to train your dog as to his boundaries on your property; however, it is not recommended that a dog should be left outside without supervision, as the invisible fence does not keep other animals out of your property.

Will electric fence kill chickens?

A Fence That Leaks, But in a Good Way. If you've ever had a predator get into a chicken yard fenced in with chicken wire, you know that the the predator can kill every single chicken: they can't escape. In short, these one-wire and two-wire fences aren't 100% effective.

Can electric fence kill you?

A. Well it did not kill you for three reasons. First, electric fences are designed NOT to kill you. Second, with that in mind electric fences are designed to deliver high voltage and low amperage and rather than explain how volts, amps and resistance works, just google it. A capacitor is a reservoir for electricity.

At what age can you use an electric fence on a dog?

There are a couple things to consider when training a new pet to the Invisible Fence® Brand system. Your puppy should be at least 8 weeks old. A puppy should be able to perform basic training commands such as sit, stay and come, before introducing him to the Invisible Fence® Brand system.

Does electricity have VAT?

The majority of businesses will be paying VAT at this 20% rate on their electricity and gas bills. However there are exceptions. Some organisations are eligible to pay a lower level of VAT.

How long does it take to complete a mural?

Explanation: Depending on detail murals can be 1 day to several weeks. Explanation: Typically it takes approximately 40 hours to paint a mural of this size. The time can vary with the amount of details. Explanation: It depends how intricate the details are so hard to say without specific information.

Is it legal to put up electric fence?

When is it Legal to Install an Electric Fence? If you're planning on installing an electric fence, it is important that you know the Bylaws for your area. Depending on where you live, it may not be legal to install an electric fence at all, or it may only be allowed under specific circumstances.

How much does an electric gate cost?

The cost of your setup will depend entirely on the mixture of style and function you decide on. Manual gates can cost as little as $500, whereas automatic gates can easily cost more than $10,000, depending on the features.

How much does it cost to have an invisible fence installed?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

Are electric fences good for dogs?

An electric fence allows a dog to roam. Electronic fences can be designed to cover up to 25 acres. They also are easily installed on difficult terrain that may be more challenging for traditional fencing. Invisible fences are effective most of the time.

Do dog electric fences really work?

“Invisible Fence“ is actually a specific brand of something called an underground containment system for dogs. From your dog's perspective, these systems all work the same way – using a warning tone, and then a shock, to enforce the chosen boundary.

How much do electric dog fences cost?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

What is the best electric dog fence?

The Best Wireless Dog Fences (2019 Reviews) CO-Z Wireless Electric Dog Fence with Remote Trainer. Motorola WIRELESSFENCE25 Wireless Fence. PENSON & CO. Perimeter Technologies Wire-Free Wi-Fi Dog Fence. PetSafe Free to Roam Wireless Fence. PetSafe Pawz Away Pet Barrier. PetSafe Wireless Pet Containment System.

What are the best electric dog fences?

The Best Wireless Dog Fences (2019 Reviews) Our Top Pick: Extreme Dog Fence® Professional Dog Containment System. Our Runner-Up Pick: SportDOG Invisible Dog Fence. Best Budget Pick: PetSafe Stubborn Dog Fence without Wire. Best Perimeter Fence Pick: PetSafe Stay and Play Wireless Fence.

Do electric fences work for dogs?

Many people think an invisible underground wireless electric fence is the best way to keep their dog in their yard. However, they are simply not as effective as you might think. While an electric fence may look invisible, its damaging effects are very visible, and generally increase harmful behavior over time.

Why is my electric fence clicking?

Almost all radio noise generated by electric fences is caused by a spark or arcing of the electrical current across fence hardware. Fence wire acts as an antenna to broadcast the arc. Vegetation can also cause arcing that is cyclic. As plants grow, they can make contact with a fence, causing a short.

Do invisible electric dog fences work?

An invisible fence. Invisible, or electric, fences work by delivering a warning sound followed by an electric shock through a collar when a dog crosses the boundary line.

Can dogs get through electric fence?

Electric fences use a collar that shocks the dog when they get too close to the fence line. So if you're worried about people or other dogs wandering onto your property, an electric fence won't help. Although your dog may not run away, you could still be at risk for losing your pet.

Is electric fence safe for dogs?

Many dog lovers worry that the electric shock is painful or emotionally devastating to a dog. However, if you hold the receiver (collar) in your hand and hold it over the boundary line you will find that it is neither painful nor shocking, but merely irritating. In other words, it is an effective and safe deterrent.

Will an electric fence shock you if you are not grounded?

One major component to any electric fence is the ground. If your fence is not properly grounded, the shock may not be as powerful or even felt at all! Because completing the circuit and grounding are critical for the shock to be felt, birds sitting on a fence line or power line feel no shock.

How deep does an invisible fence need to be buried?

In most cases, the wires should be buried in a trench that is between 1 and 3 inches deep; burying the wires at this depth allows adequate transmission of the signal, while protecting the wire from damage from lawn mowers and other activity on the lawn.

What happens when you touch a electric fence?

One of the most obvious effects of touching an electrical component, such as the wires of an electric fencing in Perth, is that a person may feel a painful jolt. Burns to external and internal body tissue can occur on contact with a working electric fence.

Is an electric blanket a fire hazard?

Newer electric blankets have a shutoff mechanism to prevent the blanket from overheating or catching fire. Older blankets (prior to about 2001) may not have a shut-off mechanism; users run the risk of overheating. Older blankets are considered fire hazards.

How much does an automatic fence cost?

A new driveway gate and opener can easily start at $2,000 and more (not including installation), whereas a manual operated gate can easily cost much less. Maintenance is a consideration, too.

How much does an invisible fence cost?

The typical cost to install an invisible dog fence is between $950 and $1500. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of your electric underground fence such as: the quality of the wiring. the cost of the collar.

Does an invisible fence hurt the dog?

Hidden fences are safe for all dogs and cats, and they won't hurt your pet. The correction a dog receives from a dog fence or other “shock collar” is actually not a shock at all. But no matter how high you get, it can't hurt your dog. His reaction will increase as the level increases, though.

How much does an invisible fence cost for an acre?

Invisible Fence – PetSafe Wireless Pet Containment System (View on Amazon) – A wireless invisible fence that covers an area up to 1/2 acre for $219.99. Wooden Fence – A ranch style wood fence is between $1,500 and $4,500 as a do it yourself project compared with $5,000 and $15,000 for professional installation.

Does having a fish tank use much electricity?

7.2 watts per month times 12 cents per watt = $0.84 cents per month to run your 100 gallon aquarium filter. On 24 hours per day for oxygen in your fish tank. This means the aquarium electric expense is $219.12 annually. This tank size may be a bit much for someone will a small budget.

Does your neighbor have to pay for half the fence?

In short, each owner has to pay one-half of the cost of maintaining or replacing the fence. Of course, just like every other law ever created, there are exceptions. If your neighbor never fenced his land, he does not have to provide a fence that only really serves you.

How long does it take to complete watch dogs?

The average player who spends a bit of time free roaming takes 35 to 40 hours to complete Ubisoft's open world hacking game Watch Dogs, creative director Jonathan Morin said on Twitter. However, to do and see everything the game has to offer will take closer to 100 hours, Morin added.

Do you have to make an appointment to euthanize a dog?

Last week we discussed making the decision to euthanize a dog. You may not be able to control when you say goodbye, but if your dog's pain can be managed through medication or environmental management, or if you simply need a little more time to grieve, you do not have to schedule the appointment right away.

How deep do you bury electric dog fence?

We do not recommend burying the dog fence wire any deeper than 2 ft. Burying to such a level should only be done if you have a large enough property that you can adjust your dog fence transmitter to compensate for the depth. Remember every inch you bury the electric dog fence wire you will lose an inch of signal field.

How do I test my electric fence energiser?

Testing Your Electric Fence Energiser Turn off the energiser. Disconnect the earth or wire going to ground (often green in colour). Disconnect the live fence wire (often red in colour). Turn the energiser back on and pick up your fence tester. If there is a very low voltage (under 1500v) or no voltage, then the energiser has a problem.

Is an electric shock from a plug dangerous?

Electric Shock Overview. Electrical energy flows through a portion of the body causing a shock. Exposure to electrical energy may result in no injury at all or may result in devastating damage or death. Burns are the most common injury from electric shock.

Does a landlord have to accept an emotional support animal?

Because landlords are not obliged to accept emotional support animals when processing your application in the same way they have to with service dogs, you may have to accept that some accommodation may be off limits to you if you do not have documentation or an ESA letter from a licensed therapist.

Does an emotional support animal have to wear a vest?

There are no emotional support dog laws or regulations which state that you must clearly identify your ESA as an assistance animal or register your emotional support dog, and although it is not required for your animal to wear an Emotional Support Dog Vest, it is highly recommended.

What happens if a dog gets an electric shock?

Electricity can cause an abnormal heartbeat. This is because the electric current disrupts the heart's normal electrical impulses. If your pet collapses and has stopped breathing, you will need to perform CPR as soon as possible.

Do you have to bury underground fence?

When it comes to installing your fence there are 2 main ways to do it: You can either bury your wire underground or you can leave it above ground. Because most people prefer to bury their wire that's the method we'll run through first.

How much does an acre of fence cost?

Fencing projects range from $1,000 to $38,000 per acre, depending on the material used and difficulty of access and construction. For big projects, it's important to note that the more length you need, the lower your price-per-foot may be – as long as you go through a professional.

How much fencing is needed to enclose an acre?

Since this is based on a square, you would take 209 linear feet x 4 sides, to arrive at 835 linear feet of fence to enclose that acre. 3) 209 (linear feet) x 4 (sides) = 836 linear feet to enclose 1 Acres.