How does a closed shop differ from a union shop?

What Is A Closed Shop System?

Best Answer

b.Closed shops are firms where the union controls the hiring.

In a union shop, all workers must join the union.

c.Closed shops are firms where unions are illegal.

b.The national Labor Relations Act strengthened unions by guaranteeing workers the right to form unions, to strike, and to engage in collective bargaining.

What is UNION SECURITY AGREEMENT? What does UNION SECURITY AGREEMENT mean?

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Related Questions

What is the difference between a union shop and a closed shop?

What is the difference between a union shop and a closed shop? a.Closed shops are firms where “right-to-work” laws have been passed. b.Closed shops are firms where the union controls the hiring. In a union shop, all workers must join the union.

Are closed shop unions illegal?

A "closed shop" became illegal in the United States with the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. A closely allied term is the "union shop." Under that arrangement, union membership is not required for employment, but a new employee must join the union within a specified period of time.

What is the difference between a closed shop and union shop?

What is the difference between a union shop and a closed shop? a.Closed shops are firms where “right-to-work” laws have been passed. b.Closed shops are firms where the union controls the hiring. In a union shop, all workers must join the union.

The Pros and Cons of Unions Explained...

Why do unions like closed shops?

The purpose of a closed shop agreement is to guarantee that all workers observe the union rules, such as paying monthly dues, taking part in strikes and work-stoppages, and accepting the terms of wage and working conditions approved by the union leaders in collective bargaining agreements with company management.

Is a union shop legal?

A union shop, also called a union security clause, is a provision included in the collective bargaining agreement to ensure union security. Union shops are permitted only in states that have not passed "right-to-work" laws prohibiting practices that force employees to join or pay dues or fees to a labor union.

What is the difference between an open and closed shop?

A closed shop is a company that has agreed only to hire people who are already a member of the union. Closed shops were made illegal by the Taft-Hartley Act. An open shop, on the other hand, is a company that doesn't require employees to be a member of a union as a condition of employment.

Is a closed shop legal?

Closed Shop (Labor) Law and Legal Definition. A closed shop is a form of union security agreement wherein the employer agrees to hire union members only. In the U.S. the hiring and employment of union members alone is illegal under the Taft-Hartley Act.

What is a union shop agreement?

A union shop, also known as a post-entry closed shop, is a form of a union security clause. Under this, the employer agrees to either only hire labor union members or to require that any new employees who are not already union members become members within a certain amount of time.

Union Membership

Are closed shops illegal?

A "closed shop" became illegal in the United States with the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947. A closely allied term is the "union shop." Under that arrangement, union membership is not required for employment, but a new employee must join the union within a specified period of time.

What is a closed shop workplace?

A pre-entry closed shop (or simply closed shop) is a form of union security agreement under which the employer agrees to hire union members only, and employees must remain members of the union at all times in order to remain employed.

Why are closed shops illegal?

United States. The Taft–Hartley Act outlawed the closed shop in the United States in 1947. The union shop was ruled illegal by the Supreme Court. States that have passed right-to-work laws go further by not allowing employers to require employees to pay a form of union dues called an agency fee.

Why do employers often dislike closed shops?

Closed Shop. Collective bargaining by unions faced general hostility in the courts, which at first considered such practices to be anti-competitive and illegal. Under that arrangement, union membership is not required for employment, but a new employee must join the union within a specified period of time.

What is a closed shop agreement in South Africa?

A closed shop agreement is a type of collective agreement that requires non-union workers to join the union.

No More "Closed Shop" Unions - Supreme Court Union Ruling

Is the union shop illegal in right to work states?

The Taft-Hartley Act allowed union shops, but also specifically allowed individual states to pass state laws prohibiting union shops. Instead, right to work laws decree that no person can be compelled to join a union or pay union dues as a condition of employment.

When did closed shops become illegal in the UK?

Although closed shops were declared illegal in the United States under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, they continue to exist in practice; however, they are not written into contracts.

How does a PET scan differ from a CT scan?

How is a PET scan different from a CT or MRI scan? One of the main differences between PET scans and imaging tests like a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is that the PET scan reveals metabolic changes in an organ or tissue earlier--at the cellular level.

What are the different types of closing a sale?

The Assumptive Close. A popular closing technique, the Assumptive close is where the salesperson assumes that the deal has been made. The Now or Never Close. The Summary Close. The Objection Close. The Ben Franklin Close. The Sharp Angle Close. The Needs Close. The Empathy Close.

How does punishment differ from reinforcement?

Reinforcement is anything that increases the frequency of a behaviour. Punishment decreases the frequency. Reinforcement can be split into two categories: positive reinforcement refers to adding something pleasant; while negative reinforcement refers to removing something unpleasant.

How does a dog's vision differ from humans?

Their vision is actually most similar to people with red-green colour blindness. But there are other ways humans differ from dogs as well, including less sensitivity to both brightness and variations in shades of grey. Colours: Humans (and dogs) have two types of colour receptors: rods and cones.

What is the difference between union and distinct in SQL?

2 Answers. The difference between Union and Union all is that UNION ALL will not eliminate duplicate rows, instead it just pulls all rows from all tables fitting your query specifics and combines them into a table. A UNION statement effectively does a SELECT DISTINCT on the results set.

What is the difference between union and join?

Both joins and unions can be used to combine data from one or more tables into a single result. Whereas a join is used to combine columns from different tables, the union is used to combine rows. The post What Is the Difference Between a Join and a UNION? appeared first on Essential SQL.

Can you get fired from a union job?

Job security. However, workers with union jobs can only be terminated for “just cause,” and the misconduct must be serious enough to merit such action. Before an employee can actually be fired, he or she can go through a grievance procedure, and if necessary, arbitration.

How much does it cost to open a pet shop?

Initial costs for pet store startups vary greatly. Product resellers usually need $15,000 to $30,000 to get started, although home-based sellers can get away with much less. Pet product manufacturers may need as little as $30,000 or as much as $500,000 to get started.

Can I buy a puppy from a pet shop?

Pet shop puppies. A pet shop environment is not a suitable one for pet dogs to spend their early weeks of life. Good breeders will not allow their puppies to be sold in pet shops, so you risk buying a poorly bred and poorly socialised puppy who will struggle to cope with life. Pet shop pups often come from puppy farms.

Can you buy a puppy from a pet shop?

Pet shop puppies. A pet shop environment is not a suitable one for pet dogs to spend their early weeks of life. Good breeders will not allow their puppies to be sold in pet shops, so you risk buying a poorly bred and poorly socialised puppy who will struggle to cope with life. Pet shop pups often come from puppy farms.

Does Bass Pro Shop have a Santa?

– Bass Pro Shops is celebrating 10 years of Santa's Wonderland – the ultimate free family Christmas event – with the return of Santa Claus to Bass Pro while expanding the magic to all Cabela's locations for the first time.* Featuring free photos with Santa, this holiday season Bass Pro Shops and Cabela's will provide

Can dogs eat fish from chip shop?

It is not just what human leftovers contain that causes the problems, it is also what they are missing: all animals need different nutrients in different amounts so by feeding your dog human food such as fish chips they will be missing out on some of the 37 essential nutrients they need to eat daily to keep them

Can you buy kittens from pet shops?

Pet shops and dealers in England will be banned from selling puppies and kittens under government plans. The proposals, which have gone out to consultation, will mean those wanting to buy or adopt a pet less than six months old will have to go to the breeder or a rescue centre.

Does Harrods still have a pet shop?

(In)famous Pet Store Closes Its Doors. (PETS/ANIMAL WELFARE) One of London's most famous department stores, Harrods, is being renovated and losing its pet department. Harrods' Pet Kingdom has been around since 1917, originally selling exotic pets like lions, camels, alligators, and even elephants.

What is the difference between selling and closing?

It lies in a very simple difference between “sales” and “closing.” Sales is the process that leads up to the close, it's the journey. The close is the destination. Sales is getting to the point where they want to buy and closing is when they actually buy the product.

How do I start a union?

Is It Time To Start a Union At Your Workplace? Find some coworkers you trust (and be careful who you trust) and speak to them about whether they would be interested in finding out more about starting a union. Contact a union organizer. Figure out which union is right for you. Form an organizing committee. Get a majority to sign on. Be prepared for employer attacks.

Do people buy from Facebook shops?

A Facebook Store is a Facebook business page tab application where potential customers can purchase products directly on your “Facebook Store.” You can see many of their products featured and have the ability to buy single products like the red hat below.

How do I become a union worker?

How Can I Become A Member If you are a construction worker or a public employee, by joining together with coworkers to form a union with LIUNA. In the construction industry, by reaching out to a Local Union where you live or work. By working for an employer which already has a contract with LIUNA.

How is a Belgian Malinois different from a German shepherd?

A German Shepherd has a dense and thick coat. A Malinois, on the other hand, has a less dense coat. Training both dogs is best done when the dog is a puppy. Both dogs are loyal when they get used to the people around them.

Can you buy kittens from a pet shop?

Pet shops and dealers in England will be banned from selling puppies and kittens under government plans. The proposals, which have gone out to consultation, will mean those wanting to buy or adopt a pet less than six months old will have to go to the breeder or a rescue centre.

What does a closing ratio tell you?

Closing Ratio Defined. Your closing ratio is the number of deals you close compared to the number of presentations you make. Say, for instance, you made 10 presentations last month and closed two sales as a result. You closed 2/10ths, or 20 percent, of your potential sales.

Can a union company hire non union workers?

A non-union employee is an employee who is not a member of a labor union. However, non-union employees make up a majority of U.S. workers and are entitled to similar workplace protection as their unionized counterparts. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) also protected employees who are not part of a union.

Is a union job better than non union?

Union Membership Gives Strength in Numbers. Union employees make an average of 30% more than non-union workers. 92% of union workers have job-related health coverage versus 68% of non-union workers. Union workers are more likely to have guaranteed pensions than non-union employees.

How does collective bargaining benefit workers labor union?

Without the collective bargaining process, unions wouldn't be able to look out for the best interests of employees. Collective bargaining provides union members with a voice to negotiate better wages, benefits and working conditions.

How do you shop for a puppy?

Where to get a puppy Consider adoption first. Find a responsible breeder and visit the premises. Don't get a puppy from a pet store. Don't believe promises that puppies are "home-raised" or "family-raised" Avoid the temptation to "rescue" a puppy mill dog by buying them. Do your part: Pledge to help stop puppy mills!

How is a dog's digestive system different from humans?

Digestive Tract. Because humans evolved to eat both plants and meat, we need a longer digestive tract in order to digest specific compounds like fiber. Dogs, on the other hand, are primarily carnivores. Internal organs and meat of animals can contain toxins that can be harmful if in the dog's body for too long.

How is a dogfish shark digestive system different from humans?

Sharks have U-shaped stomachs that use very strong stomach acids and enzymes to dissolve most of what is eaten. The digestion in the stomach is also different from humans because of the differentiation in diet. Stomach contents that cannot be digested, such as very large bones, are vomited.

How do I start a pet shop?

Get started with our guide The steps to take when starting a pet shop are: 01. Find your niche. Find your niche. Understand the start-up costs. Find the right premises. Get licenses and insurance. Source equipment and stock. Market your pet shop.

How do I report a pet shop?

Reporting Cruelty, Neglect or Bad Pet Shop Conditions Call the RSPCA 24 hr National Helpline on: 0300 1234 999. If it is a pet shop, you can also contact your local council (see yellow pages), as they are responsible for issuing pet shop licences.

How are dogs different from wolves?

Both wolves and dogs have the same number of teeth, but they, along with the skull and jaw, are larger and stronger in the wolf. “This is likely due to their need to bite and break things like bones in the wild, compared with dogs who evolved much more as scavengers of human refuse,” says Dr. Hughes.

How do human brains differ from animals?

So the brain takes up more weight in human beings than it does in other animals. Intelligence also has to do with the different components of the brain. Humans have the largest cerebral cortex of all mammals, relative to the size of their brains.

How Linux is different from Windows?

Key Differences Between Linux and Windows Operating System. Linux is free and open source operating system whereas Windows is a commercial operating system whose source code is inaccessible. Linux provides high security than windows because Linux is open source. Windows must boot from the primary partition.

Do dogs from different countries bark differently?

The answer is that there is no universally accepted sound that humans use to represent dog barks. Even in a single language there may be a number of different words used for a dog's bark, for example, in English we recognize "woof-woof," "arf-arf", "ruff-ruff" and "bow-wow."

How are wolves different from dogs?

Both dogs and wolves can be somewhat trained, though a wolf can never be domesticated. Why? Because domestication is the result of years of breeding. A recent study does show that wolves raised by humans can become attached to those humans, but they never replicate the behavior of domesticated dogs.

How is painting different from drawing?

5 Answers. You're right: drawing is dry (e.g. using a pencil or pen), painting needs paint and a brush. I am a student at the Academy of Fine Art, in the final year, and this is what we are taught: Drawings are made by using LINES, and paintings are done by using SMUDGES or STAINS.

How is Mormon different from Christianity?

While the largest Mormon denomination, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), acknowledges its differences with mainstream Christianity, it also focuses on its commonalities such as its focus on faith in Christ, following the teachings of Jesus Christ, the miracle of the atonement, and many other

How are animal bones different from humans?

Although animals and humans share many of the same skeletal elements, these elements often look very different from one another. The human pelvis is bowl shaped, whereas the chimpanzee has a long thin pelvis allowing it to walk easily on all fours. There are a select few animal bones that closely resemble human bones.

How are male cats different from females?

Behavioral differences between male and female cats are most obvious in pets that are not neutered or spayed, since the behavioral differences usually are related to the cat's sex drive. Some female cats spray while in heat, while some male cats have been known to be more affectionate.

Can a union fire you?

Unions only protect bad workers: Without a union or a contract, your employers can fire you for no reason or just a suspicion, anytime they want. A Union contract generally requires: 1. that in a layoff, you go by seniority; or 2. that the employer has to prove "just cause" to fire or discipline you.

How profitable is a coffee shop?

The average profit for a small cafe is about 2.5 percent, but large coffee operations tend to earn much higher profits. Direct costs average about 15 percent, so most of a small coffee shop's expenditures go toward overhead expenses. Building sales volume makes a small cafe more profitable.

How do you shop with a dog?

Where to get a puppy Consider adoption first. Find a responsible breeder and visit the premises. Don't get a puppy from a pet store. Don't believe promises that puppies are "home-raised" or "family-raised" Avoid the temptation to "rescue" a puppy mill dog by buying them. Do your part: Pledge to help stop puppy mills!

How are cats different from dogs?

A routine helps get your cat more on your schedule. One major difference between dogs and cats are the way they sound. Your dog will bark, howl or growl, whereas a cat meows or snarls. Behavior is tough to compare too closely, because, like humans, dog and cat behavior and personality can vary so greatly.

How are dingoes different from dogs?

Well, there isn't really any difference. A wild dog in Australia is defined as a dingo (Canis lupus dingo), feral domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) or a hybrid between the two. Dingoes first came to Australia approximately 4000 years ago, while domestic dogs arrived with European settlers in 1788.

How do you close a deal?

How to Close a Sale Do your research. Set expectations. Pitch the solution, not the product. Handle objections. Ask for the sale. Arrange next steps.

How do you close a deal faster?

Below are some of the most effective strategies to help close your sales faster: Identify the decision maker. Be real. A client can sense if you are being genuine during the sales process. Create a sense of urgency. Overcome objections. Know your competition. Watch what you say!

Can anyone join a union?

All workers in the UK are allowed to join a union, and you cannot be discriminated against for being a union member. You do not have to tell your employer if you are a member. My employer says that work rights don't apply to me because I'm a 'worker', not an 'employee'.

What does close market mean?

Definition: Direct Close. The term 'Close' in marketing terms refers to the process of making a sale. Closing has different artful ways like Direct Close, Indirect Close, Puppy Dog Close (wherein the salesperson asks customer to use the product on a trial basis initially) etc.

How do you close a sales pitch?

How to Close a Sale Do your research. Set expectations. Pitch the solution, not the product. Handle objections. Ask for the sale. Arrange next steps.

How do you close a pitch?

Closing a Sales Presentation Go back to your opening anecdote or idea. End with a challenge. Invite your audience on a metaphorical mission. Use repetition for a dramatic close. Offer inspiration. Surface their objections. Tell a story. Ask an unusual question.

Does Bass Pro Shop allow pets?

Bass Pro Shops. The fact that you can bring dogs of all sizes into most Bass Pro Shops is no fish tale! The people that run Bass Pro Shops are major dog lovers. They even host an annual Dog Day event that encourages customers to shop with their dogs.

Can a union kick out a member?

If a member is found guilty at a union trial, members can often be kicked out of the union, have his or her membership suspended, or be fined money. If a member refuses to pay a union fine, the union may take that member to court in an effort to collect.

How many employees are needed to start a union?

If 15 out of 50 employees want to form a union, will they be able to even though they are the minority in the workplace? Yes, based on the National Labor Relations Board, it takes a showing of interest of 30% of card signers to file a petition for an election.

What is a union in a company?

A company or "yellow" union is a worker organization which is dominated or influenced by an employer, and is therefore not an independent trade union. Company unions are contrary to international labour law (see ILO Convention 98, article 2).

How often do you pay union dues?

Employees also incur costs when a union wins a NLRB election. The average annual cost of union dues is $400, or about two hours of pay per month. There is a disinclination of unions toward the contingent worker.

How can an employer get rid of a union?

Having an organized union removed from a workplace is not an easy task, but it is possible as long as the employees take the correct legal steps. In either case, the union will typically resist by citing unfair practices, and may make claims that the employer assisted the employees in the attempt to remove the union.

How do you bring a union into the workplace?

Is It Time To Start a Union At Your Workplace? Find some coworkers you trust (and be careful who you trust) and speak to them about whether they would be interested in finding out more about starting a union. Contact a union organizer. Figure out which union is right for you. Form an organizing committee. Get a majority to sign on. Be prepared for employer attacks.

What does it mean when a dog closes one eye?

Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva, and is caused by irritation to the eye and infections. Allergies can also cause conjunctivitis. In addition to keeping his eye closed, your dog may also have discharge and crust that develops within and around the eye.

Is kCal different from Cal?

One (1) kilocalorie is the same as one (1) Calorie (upper case C). May help you understand the relationship between them. Generally speaking, 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories (definition here). So, the answer is, in your case, "calorie" means the same as "Kcal" or "Kilocalorie".

Is my employer a labor union?

A labor union is an organization of workers joined to protect their common interests and improve their working conditions. It serves as an intermediary between the employer and the employees. The main purpose is to give workers power to negotiate more favorable working conditions through collective bargaining.

Can you strike without a union?

Unlike unionized workers, non-union workers do not have a union as a bargaining representative. Non-union employees cannot go on strike because only unions may call strikes. An employer cannot fire employees for engaging in a concerted activity if the demands are reasonable.

How close can a well be to a property line?

For existing properties, FHA requires that a domestic well be located a minimum of 100 feet from the septic tank's drain field and a minimum of 10 feet from any property line. Should state or local regulations require greater distances, those distances must be met.

Does voting make a difference?

One of the motivations for voting is that one vote can make a difference. In a presidential election, the probability that your vote is decisive is equal to the probability that your state is necessary for an electoral college win, times the probability the vote in your state is tied in that event.

Is KCAL different from Cal?

One (1) kilocalorie is the same as one (1) Calorie (upper case C). May help you understand the relationship between them. Generally speaking, 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories (definition here). So, the answer is, in your case, "calorie" means the same as "Kcal" or "Kilocalorie".

Do dogs from different countries speak different languages?

According to Psychology Today, virtually all dogs can understand the barks of other dogs regardless of where they come from. However, the way people hear a dog's bark wildly differs depending on the language they speak and the culture they've grown up in.

Does the queen shop at Harrods?

“The royal family, with the exception of Prince Philip, are welcome to shop at Harrods at any time.” Harrods' Royal Warrants from the queen, held since 1955, and the Prince of Wales, held since 1980, both expire at the end of 2001.

What does throat closing feel like?

tightness in the throat or feeling like the throat or airways are closing. hoarseness or trouble speaking. wheezing. nasal stuffiness or coughing.

What time does Battersea Dogs Home Close?

Opening times Opening timesGeneral admissionDaily 10.30am - 4pm (last admission)Rehoming enquiriesDaily 10.30am - 4pmClaiming a lost petDaily 10.30am - 6pmCafé and gift shopDaily 10.30am - 4pm

Does Magic Springs close during rain?

If the park closes for inclement weather after 4 p.m., you will be issued an evening ticket valid for a visit on another day after 4 p.m. No rain checks are issued for complimentary tickets, including previous rain checks.

Why you should join a union?

Why Join a Union? Because They Work! Labor unions give workers the power to negotiate for more favorable working conditions and other benefits through collective bargaining. Union members earn better wages and benefits than workers who aren't union members.

What does pet closeness do in MapleStory?

What is a Pet? In MapleStory, players have the option of buying Pets (monsters that follow behind you and respond to commands) from the Cash Shop. Pets have levels, which are raised by "Closeness" instead of "Experience." Closeness is gained by feeding the pets and talking to them.

Can an employer refuse a union?

Can you refuse to recognize a union even after your workers have decided to form one? The National Labor Relations Act, (NLRA) signed into law by Franklin Delano Roosevelt affords workers the right to unionize and controls how union workers and employers must interact with each other.

How do you care for a Littlest Pet Shop toy?

How to Care for a Littlest Pet Shop Toy Purchase your Littlest Pet, if you've not already done so. Look around at many stores to find out the best price. Make or buy a home for your LPS. Give your LPS a regular bath. Take your LPS to the places you visit. Feed your LPS toy food. Throw parties for your LPS toys.

What is a closing question?

Final closing questions are part of a topic I'm asked about quite often. The key point is that after you ask your final closing questions that your presentation is finished. After that final closing question the buyer is obligated to answer one of two ways. They either accept the offer you've made or they don't.

What is a closed sale?

Closed sale means Escrow is closed with a condition all the closing cost as well as the funds for buying a house is funded by a buyer. The title is than transferred into new owner ' s name.

Can a non union employee strike?

Unlike unionized workers, non-union workers do not have a union as a bargaining representative. Non-union employees cannot go on strike because only unions may call strikes. An employer cannot fire employees for engaging in a concerted activity if the demands are reasonable.

How close can a shed be to a fence UK?

The maximum eaves height of the shed / greenhouse / building is 2.5 metres if it is within 2 metres of the property boundary. 6. No part of the shed / greenhouse / building is within 3.5 metres of the boundary with a road to the rear of the house.

How did different dog breeds come from wolves?

The origin of the domestic dog includes the dog's evolutionary divergence from the wolf, its domestication, and its development into dog types and dog breeds. The dog and the extant gray wolf are sister taxa, as modern wolves are not closely related to the population of wolves that was first domesticated.

Why does my iguana close his eyes?

Reading the iguanas eyes may take some experience. When he is relaxed the eyes MOVE, ROTATE and LOOK at other things. When you touch the iguana on the head and he quickly closes his eyes, it is most likely because your fingers are too close to his eyes and this intimidates or annoys him more than it soothes him.

How is negative reinforcement different from punishment in dogs?

As with reinforcement, there is negative and positive punishment. NEGATIVE punishment involves removing something good from the dog at the moment the dog performs an undesirable behavior.

How is animal hair different from human hair?

Pigment concentration: Human hair has even distribution of pigment throughout cortex, while animal hair is more concentrated toward the center/medulla area. Cuticle patterns: Human hair is imbricate pattern, while animals can have a range including coronal and spinous.

How is the human brain different from other animals?

In general, the larger the animal, the larger the skull, and therefore, the larger the brain. Intelligence also has to do with the different components of the brain. Humans have the largest cerebral cortex of all mammals, relative to the size of their brains.

How long does it take to close a real estate deal?

Most federally related mortgage loans can close within 30 days. Special first-time home buyer programs, particularly those involving help with the buyer's down payment, might take 35 to 45 days to close. These special loans typically require approval from two underwriting processes.

What is a direct close?

Direct Close is the most straight forward method of selling in which the salesman directly asks the buyer for an order. Summarize and direct close is a method of closing in which the salesperson summarizes the key benefits of the product/service before asking for the order.

How many different sounds does a dog make?

Some people write the fact as dogs having 100 sounds and cats having 10,000, or anything in between. Chacha.com (answers from random people online) says this: Cats can make over 100 different vocal sounds, dogs can only make 10.

How long does it take for a puppy's soft spot to close?

However, most new puppy owners are never aware of the fontanel because the soft spots close up when puppies are between 4 weeks and 4 months old -- before puppies reach adoption age. A puppy's fontanel can take longer than four months to close, but it's rare.