How long does C diff spores live?

C. Difficile Infection - Sahil Khanna, MBBS - Mayo Clinic

Best Answer

C.

difficile spores can be shed to the environment by both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and may survive for up to 5 months on inanimate surfaces (17).

They resist the bactericidal effects of most hospital disinfectants and most other decontamination techniques (18).

Clostridium Difficile Infection (Pseudomembranous Colitis)

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How long do C diff spores live in the body?

C. difficile spores can be shed to the environment by both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and may survive for up to 5 months on inanimate surfaces (17). They resist the bactericidal effects of most hospital disinfectants and most other decontamination techniques (18).

How long does C diff live on surfaces?

C. difficile spores can be shed to the environment by both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients and may survive for up to 5 months on inanimate surfaces (17). They resist the bactericidal effects of most hospital disinfectants and most other decontamination techniques (18).

How long does it take to cure C diff?

People with Clostridium difficile infections typically recover within two weeks of starting antibiotic treatment. However, many people become reinfected and need additional therapy. Most recurrences happen one to three weeks after stopping antibiotic therapy, although some occur as long as two or three months later.

What are the symptomps of C Diff? - Lynn Connolly, MD - Video FAQs

How long is C diff infection contagious?

How will I know if I am no longer contagious for C. diff? People infected with C. diff who become ill usually are treated with special antibiotics (metronidazole (Flagyl), vancomycin (Vancocin), rifaximin (Xifaxan) and/or fidaxomicin) for about 10 to 14 days.

How do you get rid of C diff spores at home?

Most healthy adults who come in contact with C. diff in the home won't get sick. Hospitals use special cleaning products to kill C. diff, but you can make a cleaner at home. Mix 1 part bleach to 10 parts water (for example, 1/4 cup bleach poured into 2 1/2 cups water).

How dangerous is C diff?

C. difficile infection can be fatal, but this is rare. The risk of a life-threatening condition is higher among older patients and individuals with existing serious health conditions. Most symptoms occur in those who are taking antibiotic medications.

How long is a person contagious with C diff?

How will I know if I am no longer contagious for C. diff? People infected with C. diff who become ill usually are treated with special antibiotics (metronidazole (Flagyl), vancomycin (Vancocin), rifaximin (Xifaxan) and/or fidaxomicin) for about 10 to 14 days.

Does everyone have C diff?

C. difficile bacteria and their spores are found in feces. People can get infected if they touch surfaces contaminated with feces, and then touch their mouth.

Fecal Microbial Transplantation: A Treatment for Clostridium Difficile

How is C diff caused?

Spores from C. difficile bacteria are passed in feces and spread to food, surfaces and objects when people who are infected don't wash their hands thoroughly. The antibiotics that most often lead to C. difficile infections include fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, penicillins and clindamycin.

How long is hospital stay for C diff?

Hospital length of stay decreased by about 1 day for patients with a principal diagnosis of C. difficile. In 2004, the average length was 6.9 days, but in 2014 it measured 5.8 days.

Does soap and water kill C diff?

Because alcohol does not kill C. diff spores, use of soap and water is more effective than alcohol-based hand rubs. However, early experimental data suggest that, even using soap and water, the removal of C. diff spores is more challenging than the removal or inactivation of other common pathogens.

Can C diff airborne?

Background. The high transmissibility and widespread environmental contamination by Clostridium difficile suggests the possibility of airborne dissemination of spores. We measured airborne and environmental C. difficile adjacent to patients with symptomatic C. difficile infection (CDI).

What does C diff poop smell like?

Frequent, foul smelling, watery stools characterize mild cases of CDI. More severe symptoms, indicative of pseudomembranous colitis, include diarrhea that contains blood and mucous and abdominal cramps. CDI is confirmed by presence of a toxin in a stool specimen.

The Gut Microbiome and C. difficile

Does hand sanitizer kill C diff?

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are highly effective against non–spore-forming organisms, but they do not kill C. difficile spores or remove C. difficile from the hands [7, 19].

Does Laundry Detergent kill C diff?

Unfortunately, regular detergents cannot kill this germ when it is on your clothes. Only one ingredient effectively kills C-diff in your laundry. Sort your laundry as usual.

Does C Diff make you tired?

Infection by the bacterium Clostridium difficile, or C. diff, can cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, headache, fever, light-headedness, nausea and weight loss. (Recurrent infection was defined as a second episode of C. diff within 15 to 56 days of an initial episode.)

Does hydrogen peroxide kill C diff?

These have passed laboratory testing showing they can kill millions of C. diff spores on a surface,” says Tanner. As an alternative to bleach, some facilities are experiencing success in the fight against C. diff by using accelerated hydrogen peroxide (AHP) products.

How long does it take to recover from C diff infection?

People with Clostridium difficile infections typically recover within two weeks of starting antibiotic treatment. However, many people become reinfected and need additional therapy. Most recurrences happen one to three weeks after stopping antibiotic therapy, although some occur as long as two or three months later.

Is C diff serious?

C. difficile infection can be fatal, but this is rare. The risk of a life-threatening condition is higher among older patients and individuals with existing serious health conditions. Most symptoms occur in those who are taking antibiotic medications.

What can cause C diff?

But for some people, these drugs can trigger a potentially life-threatening infection caused by a type of bacteria called clostridium difficile, or C. diff. It can cause colitis, a serious inflammation of the colon.

Does C diff always smell bad?

Frequent, foul smelling, watery stools characterize mild cases of CDI. More severe symptoms, indicative of pseudomembranous colitis, include diarrhea that contains blood and mucous and abdominal cramps.

Does apple cider vinegar cure C diff?

Apple cider vinegar is highly acidic. If taken undiluted, the apple cider vinegar may pull water out of the body into the bowel, making the stool more watery. The cider can also kill off the good bacteria in your intestines.

What does C diff smell like?

Frequent, foul smelling, watery stools characterize mild cases of CDI. More severe symptoms, indicative of pseudomembranous colitis, include diarrhea that contains blood and mucous and abdominal cramps. CDI is confirmed by presence of a toxin in a stool specimen.

How do you treat C diff naturally?

Cure Recurring C-diff Using Probiotics Plus Other Natural Treatments Natural antimicrobials. Certain herbs and nutrients have the ability to kill bacteria and treat bacterial infections. Probiotics. Small bowel healing. Removal of gluten and dairy. Hygiene.

How soon do C diff symptoms appear?

Some people carry the bacterium C. difficile in their intestines but never become sick, though they may still spread the infection. Signs and symptoms usually develop within five to 10 days after starting a course of antibiotics, but may occur as soon as the first day or up to two months later.

How serious is C diff infection?

In severe cases, people tend to become dehydrated and may need hospitalization. C. difficile causes the colon to become inflamed (colitis) and sometimes may form patches of raw tissue that can bleed or produce pus (pseudomembranous colitis). Signs and symptoms of severe infection include: Blood or pus in the stool.

How long does it take to fully recover from C diff?

People with Clostridium difficile infections typically recover within two weeks of starting antibiotic treatment. However, many people become reinfected and need additional therapy. Most recurrences happen one to three weeks after stopping antibiotic therapy, although some occur as long as two or three months later.

How long does it take to get rid of C diff?

People with Clostridium difficile infections typically recover within two weeks of starting antibiotic treatment. However, many people become reinfected and need additional therapy. Most recurrences happen one to three weeks after stopping antibiotic therapy, although some occur as long as two or three months later.

Is C Diff life threatening?

The symptoms of C. difficile colitis are fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Serious complications of C. difficile colitis include dehydration, rupture of the colon, and spread of infection to the abdominal cavity or body. Severe infection is life-threatening.

How do you test for C diff?

Diagnosing Clostridium Difficile Infections Stool Test. The simplest way to detect C. difficile is through a stool test, in which you provide a sample in a sterile container given to you at your doctor's office or a lab. Blood Test. A blood test can reveal high levels of white blood cells, a sign of infection. Colonoscopy or Sigmoidoscopy. CT Scan.

Can a healthy person catch C diff?

C. difficile bacteria and their spores are found in feces. People can get infected if they touch surfaces contaminated with feces, and then touch their mouth. Healthcare workers can spread the bacteria to their patients if their hands are contaminated. For healthy people, C. difficile does not pose a health risk.

Where do you get C diff?

Spores from C. difficile bacteria are passed in feces and spread to food, surfaces and objects when people who are infected don't wash their hands thoroughly.

Is yogurt good for C diff?

“Foods that contain probiotics will help repopulate the gut with good bacteria and reduce the risk of regrowth of C diff,” she writes. Yogurt is a good part of your C diff diet as well, since it is loaded with several probiotics.

What disinfectant kills C diff?

CDC cleaning ratio 1:10 solution; 1 cup bleach to 9 cups of water to be used on non-porous surfaces with solution remaining on surfaces for a minimum of ten minutes and mixed fresh daily for effective cleaning solution OR with a EPA Registered Sporicide/Disinfectant (e.g., Clorox Germicidal Bleach).

Can C diff kill you?

However, when they kill bad bacteria, they also kill good bacteria that help protect you from infection. Until the good bacteria in your stomach and intestines can grow back, you can get sick from C. diff. C. diff is spread through feces.

Can probiotics kill C diff?

Probiotic Proves Deadly Against Clostridium Difficile. In the fight against bacterial pathogens, researchers are finding new weapons in “good” bacteria, as a new study suggests that probiotics may be used to kill dangerous Clostridium difficile bacteria.

Can humans get C diff from dogs?

The strains of C. difficile in dogs and cats are almost always the same as those found in people. Dogs that visit human hospitals are at increased risk of shedding this bacterium in their stool, and certain types of contact with people have been identified as increasing this risk (Lefebvre et al 2009).

Can you die from C diff?

Approximately 29,000 patients died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis of C. difficile. Of those, about 15,000 deaths were estimated to be directly attributable to C. difficile infections, making C. difficile a very important cause of infectious disease death in the United States.

Can you drink alcohol with C diff?

C. difficile infection most often occurs during or after treatment with antibiotics. Anyone can become infected but the risk is greatest for people in hospitals and nursing homes. Alcohol-based hand rubs may not work against C difficile germs.

Can you die from C diff infection?

Approximately 29,000 patients died within 30 days of the initial diagnosis of C. difficile. Of those, about 15,000 deaths were estimated to be directly attributable to C. difficile infections, making C. difficile a very important cause of infectious disease death in the United States.

Can C diff resolve without antibiotics?

Resistance to metronidazole and vancomycin is not reported, but changing antibiotic is often tried empirically after one week if symptoms have not resolved. Placebo arms in clinical trials suggest that C difficile associated diarrhoea will resolve without antibiotic therapy in around 20% of patients.

Is C diff fatal in elderly?

“Combined with the fact that severe and fatal C. difficile infection predominantly affects our elderly and nursing home patients, the implications of C. difficile infections are quite significant.

Can you kiss someone with C diff?

These spores can be spread to others on the hands of health care providers or on contaminated environmental surfaces or equipment. C. difficile is usually not spread through casual contact such as touching or hugging. C. difficile is not spread through the air by coughing or sneezing.

Can C diff be transmitted to dogs?

Clostridium in dogs is a bacterial infection that causes severe diarrhea. Both types of clostridium are bacteria that spread throughout your dog's intestinal tract and is spread through contact with an infected dog's feces. Clostridium difficile can also be transmitted through food that is infested.

Can probiotics alone cure C diff?

No benefit of probiotics treatment was found in the other studies. There is insufficient evidence to recommend probiotic therapy as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy for C. difficile colitis. There is no evidence to support the use of probiotics alone in the treatment of C. difficile colitis.

Can pets get C diff from humans?

Humans: In people, CDI (which is also sometimes called C. difficile-associated disease [CDAD]) may cause no illness at all, or anywhere from very mild to very severe diarrhea. Animals: The vast majority of dogs and cats that carry C. difficile in their intestine do not become ill.

How contagious is C diff to a healthy person?

Yes, C. diff is contagious. Microorganisms can be spread from person-to-person by touch or by direct contact with contaminated objects and surfaces (for example, clothing, cell phones, door handles). However, these people are still infected with the bacteria can spread the infection to others.

How do you get rid of C diff at home?

Most healthy adults who come in contact with C. diff in the home won't get sick. Hospitals use special cleaning products to kill C. diff, but you can make a cleaner at home. Mix 1 part bleach to 10 parts water (for example, 1/4 cup bleach poured into 2 1/2 cups water).

How do you know if C Diff is back?

Symptoms of severe CDI may include: Having watery diarrhea often (as many as 15 times) throughout the day and night. Cramping and pain in your belly that may be severe. Blood or pus (a thick, yellowish substance) in your bowel movements.

How do you get C diff from another person?

C. difficile bacteria and their spores are found in feces. People can get infected if they touch surfaces contaminated with feces, and then touch their mouth. Healthcare workers can spread the bacteria to their patients if their hands are contaminated. For healthy people, C. difficile does not pose a health risk.

Can C diff spread to pets?

Despite the low risk for Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) passing between a cat or dog and their owner, the risk can't be counted out, according to new research. The researchers also wrote that it was important to note C. difficile did not occur simultaneously in animals and humans sharing the same household.

Do Clorox wipes kill C diff?

Clorox wipes receive EPA registration for C. diff. BALTIMORE — The Clorox Company has announced that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) accepted the registration of Clorox Commercial Solutions'' Germicidal Wipes to kill Clostridium difficile (C. diff) spores in five minutes, according to a press release.

Can I eat tomatoes with C diff?

You may eat soft, plain foods. Good choices are soda crackers, toast, plain noodles, or rice, cooked cereal, applesauce, and bananas. Eat slowly and avoid foods that are hard to digest or may irritate your stomach, such as foods with acid (like tomatoes or oranges), spicy or fatty food, meats, and raw vegetables.

Can probiotics get rid of C diff?

In a new study published in the journal Infection and Immunity, researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine examined how next generation probiotics can be used along with antibiotics to fight C. difficile. The reuterin acted as an antimicrobial agent, and worked as well as vancomycin to inhibit C. difficile growth.

Can you prevent C diff with probiotics?

Probiotics could prevent C. difficile infections. The incidence of C. difficile infections is rising and causing a substantial burden on the health care system. Researchers have estimated that more than 20% of patients with C. difficile infection fail initial treatment, with many patients having a recurrence.

Can I drink alcohol with C diff?

Avoid carbonated drinks and alcohol. They can make symptoms worse. Tell your healthcare provider if symptoms return. Even after treatment, C. difficile may come back.

Do Cavi Wipes kill C diff?

They kill C. diff spores in 3 minutes—and do not require PPE*. They also meet the CDC recommended 1:10 bleach dilution and are compatible with most medical device equipment**. So when it comes to disinfecting hard non-porous surfaces, leave the gloves behind and reach for CaviWipes Bleach.

How do I clean my house with C diff?

Most healthy adults who come in contact with C. diff in the home won't get sick. Hospitals use special cleaning products to kill C. diff, but you can make a cleaner at home. Mix 1 part bleach to 10 parts water (for example, 1/4 cup bleach poured into 2 1/2 cups water).

Can you ever get rid of C diff?

When this happens, you may get the illness called Clostridium difficile colitis. This means that even if you kill the C. diff bacteria, spores can still be present. This is why you can get rid of the C. diff symptoms when being treated with medicine, but it can come back later.

What foods should be avoided with C diff?

But well-cooked vegetables like beets and green beans are good soft foods—important for an effective C diff diet. Additional soluble-fiber choices for a C diff diet include: Apple pulp. Citrus fruits. Flaxseed. Oatmeal. Peas. Psyllium. Rice bran. Soup.

What are the first signs of C diff?

The symptoms of a C. difficile infection include: watery diarrhea. fever. loss of appetite. nausea. abdominal pain, tenderness, or cramping. fatigue.

When can I go back to work after C diff?

When can I return to work after C. diff infection? You can return to work as soon as you feel ready, or after your diarrhea has stopped. Healthcare workers should wait 24 to 48 hours after their diarrhea stops before returning to work.

What happens if you don't treat C diff?

If a C. diff infection isn't treated quickly, you could become dehydrated due to severe diarrhea. This loss of fluids might also affect your blood pressure, kidney function, and overall health. A C. diff infection also can lead to toxic megacolon or bowel perforation, though these rarely happen.

Is it safe to visit someone with C diff?

If you are visiting a patient with C. diff you can help to prevent the spread of infection by following the hospital's visiting rules and using these precautions. Do not visit if you have any illness. It is preferable that you do not visit more than one person on a hospital visit.

What is the best probiotic for C diff?

A wide variety of probiotics have been tested and used to prevent or treat CDI. The best studied probiotic agents in CDI are Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG (LGG) and other lactobacilli, and probiotic mixtures.

What are the symptoms of C diff in dogs?

Symptoms and Types Diarrhea with shiny mucus on its surface. Small amounts of fresh blood in diarrhea. Small, meager stools. May have large volume of watery stools. Straining to defecate. Increased frequency of defecation. Vomiting (on occasion)

Can dogs get C diff from taking antibiotics?

Does C. difficile cause disease in dogs and cats? (i.e. do they get sick?) There is evidence indicating that C. difficile might be one of the more common causes of diarrhea in dogs. In people, C. difficile infection is most common in hospitalized individuals and those being treated with antibiotics.

Is bleach the only thing that kills C diff?

Cleaning with bleach is the No. 1 means of attacking C. diff spores, say experts. “There are probably only four to five EPA-registered bleach-based disinfectants with a C. diff claim. These have passed laboratory testing showing they can kill millions of C. diff spores on a surface,” says Tanner.

What should you not eat when you have C diff?

Choose fluids containing water, salt and sugar, such as diluted fruit juice, soft drinks and broths. Good nutrition. If you have watery diarrhea, eat starchy foods, such as potatoes, noodles, rice, wheat and oatmeal. Other good choices are saltine crackers, bananas, soup and boiled vegetables.

Can you take antibiotics if you have had C diff?

Antibiotics can disrupt the normal balance in your intestines. Your risk increases if you have taken antibiotics for a long period of time or if the antibiotic is broad-spectrum (treats a wide variety of bacteria). People who are 65 years of age or older are at greater risk of a C. diff. infection.

What happens if C Diff doesn't go away?

Q; What if the infection still doesn't go away? A: There are a few people who have an ongoing infection with C diff and despite months of treatments, they continue to have symptoms and continue to test positive for the bacteria. The success rate of fecal transplant for chronic C diff infections is very high.

Can C diff infection go away on its own?

For some people with true Clostridium difficile infection, it will go away on its own. And we do know that after you've been treated successfully for Clostridium difficile, you still carry those spores, and those spores are probably the reservoir from which your recurrence will emerge.

What foods should I avoid with C diff?

Choose fluids containing water, salt and sugar, such as diluted fruit juice, soft drinks and broths. Good nutrition. If you have watery diarrhea, eat starchy foods, such as potatoes, noodles, rice, wheat and oatmeal. Other good choices are saltine crackers, bananas, soup and boiled vegetables.

What is the best probiotic to take for C diff?

A wide variety of probiotics have been tested and used to prevent or treat CDI. The best studied probiotic agents in CDI are Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus GG (LGG) and other lactobacilli, and probiotic mixtures.

How long does a dog C section take?

How Long Does the Canine Cesarean Section (C-Section) Take to Perform? The procedure takes about 45 minutes to one hour to perform in most cases, including the needed time for preparation and anesthesia.

How long does C section take to heal?

Get plenty of rest. A C-section is major surgery. Just like with any surgery, your body needs time to heal afterward. Expect to stay in the hospital for three to four days after your delivery (longer if there are complications), and give your body up to six weeks to fully heal.

How long does a Maltipoo live?

10) A female should be between the ages of 2 and 3 years old before being allowed to mate and carry a litter. 11) Average life span is 14 years old, with an expected range of 12 to 16 years. 12) Small dogs typically live longer lives than larger breeds.

How long does distemper virus live?

One of the few positive aspects of distemper is that the virus cannot live without fresh secretions; it is inactivated in minutes outside the living host's body. Minimal disinfection is necessary. A recovered dog may shed virus up to 2 to 3 months.

How long does the average raccoon live?

Life span: In the wild, a raccoon has a life expectancy of about 2 to 3 years, but in captivity a raccoon can live up to 20 years. Diet: The raccoon is an omnivorous and opportunistic eater, with its diet determined heavily by its environment.

How long does a cavachon live?

Bichons enjoy an average lifespan of over 10 years, usually topping out at around 15 years. It's impossible to predict with any accuracy, all you can hope for is that a healthy Cavachon will live for 10 years or more.

How long does a wasp live?

How long do wasps live for? In social wasps, workers (sterile females) have an average lifespan of 12-22 days, drones (fertile males) have a slightly longer lifespan than workers, and queens (fertile females) have an average lifespan of 12 months.

How long does a turtle live?

Turtles and tortoises are some of the most long-lived members of the reptile family. Even small species that are typically kept as pets, like box turtles and terrapins, live between 30 and 40 years if they're kept healthy. Larger species such as sea turtles are estimated to live about 80 years.

How long does a Cavapoo live?

How long will a Cavapoo live? The Cavalier King Charles Spaniel has a life expectancy of 10-12 years, while Miniature Poodles can live as long as 15 years.

How long does a Labradoodle live?

Labradoodles are relatively long lived as a breed and an average life expectancy is between 12 and 15 years. In general, smaller dogs live longer than larger dogs, and there are many factors that affect lifespan, such as diet, exercise, genetics, accidents and injury, etc.

How long does Jindo dogs live?

The lifespan for Jindos is often 14 years or more, and most live long, healthy lives. There are very few reported health issues within the breed.

How long does a squirrel live?

Burunduk: 6 – 10 Jahre Alpenmurmeltier: 15 – 18 Jahre

How long does a mushroom live?

In general, fungi have a very short life span, though it differs greatly from species to species. Some types may live as short as a day, while others survive anywhere between a week and a month. The life cycle of a fungus begins as a spore and lasts until germination.

How long does a penguin live?

Kaiserpinguin: 20 Jahre Zwergpinguin: 6 Jahre

How long does a powerful owl live?

The Powerful Owl mates for life (over 30 years in some cases) and pairs defend an all-purpose territory year-round.

How long does a cavachon live for?

How Long do They Live? The average life expectancy of a Cavachon is 10 – 12 years.

How long does a Pomsky live?

The parents of Pomskies usually live from 10 to 16 years. Therefore, Pomskies will live just as long, however… their age will greatly depend on the care you give them, such as diet, exercise and overall treatment of your new family member.

How long does a cockapoo live?

As with a lot of smaller dogs they tend to be quite long-lived, and it is usual for cockapoos to live between the lifespan of 14–18 years. However, both purebred poodles and cocker spaniels can suffer from luxating patellas (loose knees), and this can be passed on to their offspring.

How long does a Chihuahua mix live?

Chihuahuas may appear tiny and frail, but like other small toy dogs, they can live long lives. In fact, small dogs tend to live longer than larger breeds on average. For instance, a healthy Chihuahua might live to 15 or even 20 years old while medium and large dogs tend to live to between 10 and 13 years old.

How long does a Yorkie bichon live?

Birth: The Yorkie bichon mix born after the cross between Bichon Frise and Yorkshire terrier. Lifespan: The average it is 12 but they can live as long as for 15 years if cared properly.

How long does a crow live?

Grand Corbeau: 10 – 15 ans Corneille d'Amérique: 7 – 8 ans Corbeau d'Australie: 22 ans

How long does the average person live?

Life expectancy is rising globally - people born in 2016 will on average live seven years longer than those born 25 years ago. Enter your information below to find the life expectancy for people of your age, country and gender, as well as the proportion of your life you can on average expect to be healthy.

How long does a lizard live?

The gestation for a lizard egg can last up to 12 months. Most baby lizards are self-sufficient from birth and are able to walk, run and feed on their own. The young reach maturity at 18 months to 7 years, depending on the species. Some lizards can live up to 50 years.

How long does a skunk live?

After they are weaned, they leave the den and at to 10 to 12 months old they are ready to have their own kits. Skunks have very short lives and often live only around three years. In captivity they can live a little longer, usually seven to eight years. There are four species of spotted skunks.

How long does a diabetic dog live?

That said, it is treatable, and your dog can live for years with a high quality of life. “If they live past first three months, they do really well. Excluding dogs that don't make it through those first few months, the median survival is two years,” she says. “In fact, a lot won't even die of diabetes.”

How long does a Daniff live?

The Great Dane is not a healthy breed and they have short lifespans, an average Great Dane can only live under 10 years of age. The Daniff however is a healthier line with a lifespan up to 12 years or more.