How long does the Lyme vaccine last for dogs?

Ask the Pet Vet-Dog Vaccinations

Best Answer

The Lyme vaccine does not provide complete protection against the disease, but is still worth considering when the risk of infection is high.

Dogs 12 weeks of age or older should initially receive two vaccines 2-4 weeks apart and an annual booster thereafter.

Understanding dog vaccinations - Purina

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Related Questions

How long does a Lyme vaccine last in dogs?

The Lyme vaccine does not provide complete protection against the disease, but is still worth considering when the risk of infection is high. Dogs 12 weeks of age or older should initially receive two vaccines 2-4 weeks apart and an annual booster thereafter.

How long does the parvo vaccine last?

Even more exciting is the task force has acknowledged that in the case of the non-rabies core vaccines, immunity lasts at least 5 years for distemper and parvo, and at least 7 years for adenovirus. Hopefully these new guidelines will help more dog owners understand the long-lasting effect of those puppy shots!

How long does Lyme bullseye rash last?

- Surrounding redness does not expand when observed over 24-48 hrs. - Reaction at site of tick bite can last days, even weeks. Lyme rash occurs at the site of the tick bite in 80% of people with early Lyme disease. Incubation period from tick bite to rash is 3-30 days (usually 3-10 days).

Dogs can get a Lyme disease vaccine. Why can’t humans?

Does the Lyme vaccine for dogs work?

The Lyme vaccine for dogs works in a similar manner to LYMErix. But while it does help control the spread of the disease, it doesn't make up for the lack of a vaccine in humans.

How long does the rabies vaccine last in dogs?

Dogs and cats are first vaccinated for rabies between 4 and 6 months of age. They need a booster one year from that date. They are then vaccinated every three years, although some states still require annual rabies vaccinations for dogs and/or cats.

How long does lameness last in dogs with Lyme disease?

Symptoms of Lyme Disease in Dogs. Many dogs who develop Lyme disease have recurrent lameness due to inflammation of the joints. Sometimes the lameness lasts for only three to four days but recurs days to weeks later, either in the same leg or in other legs. This is known as “shifting-leg lameness.”

How long does a parvo vaccine last for?

Even more exciting is the task force has acknowledged that in the case of the non-rabies core vaccines, immunity lasts at least 5 years for distemper and parvo, and at least 7 years for adenovirus. Hopefully these new guidelines will help more dog owners understand the long-lasting effect of those puppy shots!

How long does Q fever vaccination last?

However, your body does take several weeks after vaccination to fully develop this protection against Q fever. Protection by vaccination requires one dose of Q-VAX® Vaccine. Protection lasts for many years. You must not be given Q-VAX® Vaccine more than once.

Vaccines for Lyme Disease - Past, Present, and Future

How long is a Lyme vaccine good for in dogs?

The Lyme vaccine does not provide complete protection against the disease, but is still worth considering when the risk of infection is high. Dogs 12 weeks of age or older should initially receive two vaccines 2-4 weeks apart and an annual booster thereafter.

How long does rabies vaccine last for humans?

A booster dose as often as every 6 months to 2 years may be required for person at highest risk for exposure to rabies virus, such as persons who work with rabies virus in research laboratories or vaccine production facilities, veterinarians and staff, and animal control and wildlife officers.

How long does Hep A vaccine last?

Yes, It is not known for how long protection from one hepatitis A vaccine dose lasts, but it has been shown to last for at least 10 years (33). One dose of single-antigen hepatitis A vaccine administered at any time before International travel can provide adequate protection for most healthy persons.

How long does a parvo vaccine last?

Even more exciting is the task force has acknowledged that in the case of the non-rabies core vaccines, immunity lasts at least 5 years for distemper and parvo, and at least 7 years for adenovirus. Hopefully these new guidelines will help more dog owners understand the long-lasting effect of those puppy shots!

How long does vaccine immunity last?

Duration of protection by vaccine DiseaseEstimated duration of protection from vaccine after receipt of all recommended doses 1,2MeaslesLife-long in >96% vaccinesMumps>10 years in 90%, waning slowly over timeRubellaMost vaccinees (>90%) protected >15-20 yearsPneumococcal>4-5 years so far for conjugate vaccines8 weitere Zeilen

Mayo Clinic Minute: Will there be a Lyme disease vaccine for humans?

How long do Lyme symptoms last?

The CDC states, It is not uncommon for patients treated for Lyme disease with a recommended 2 to 4 week course of antibiotics to have lingering symptoms of fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches at the time they finish treatment. In a small percentage of cases, these symptoms can last for more than 6 months.

Does the Lyme vaccine for dogs have side effects?

In laboratory studies, dogs injected with the vaccine and later injected with active bacteria were found to be far less likely than unvaccinated dogs to develop lameness, fever, anorexia or other symptoms of Lyme disease. No serious side effects were noted in these studies.

Is the Lyme vaccine safe for dogs?

In laboratory studies, dogs injected with the vaccine and later injected with active bacteria were found to be far less likely than unvaccinated dogs to develop lameness, fever, anorexia or other symptoms of Lyme disease. No serious side effects were noted in these studies.

Is the Lyme vaccine for dogs effective?

That is a great question. Unfortunately, veterinarians do not have a complete answer when it comes to the vaccine's effectiveness. Some research suggests that vaccination appears to be fairly good in preventing infection in dogs not previously exposed to the Lyme organism.

How long do vaccines last?

Duration of protection by vaccine DiseaseEstimated duration of protection from vaccine after receipt of all recommended doses 1,2MeaslesLife-long in >96% vaccinesMumps>10 years in 90%, waning slowly over timeRubellaMost vaccinees (>90%) protected >15-20 yearsPneumococcal>4-5 years so far for conjugate vaccines8 weitere Zeilen

How long does a dog rabies vaccine last?

Dogs and cats are first vaccinated for rabies between 4 and 6 months of age. They need a booster one year from that date. They are then vaccinated every three years, although some states still require annual rabies vaccinations for dogs and/or cats.

Does Lyme vaccine prevent Lyme disease dogs?

The Lyme vaccine for dogs works in a similar manner to LYMErix. But while it does help control the spread of the disease, it doesn't make up for the lack of a vaccine in humans.

How long does rabies vaccine last in dogs UK?

UK rabies vaccinations are valid for the Pets Travel Scheme for three years after vaccination, but be aware that some vaccinations given in other countries may be valid for only one year. If your pet's last rabies vaccine is out of date, you must have a booster vaccine at least three weeks before you travel.

How long do dog vaccines really last?

A second vaccination is recommended after 1 year, then boosters every 3 years. Puppies need a booster 1 year after completing their initial series, then all dogs need a booster every 3 years or more often. Core dog vaccine.

How long do dog vaccines last?

A second vaccination is recommended after 1 year, then boosters every 3 years. Puppies need a booster 1 year after completing their initial series, then all dogs need a booster every 3 years or more often. Core dog vaccine.

How long do dog vaccinations last?

“Limited studies suggest that booster vaccinations for many of the core vaccinations last for at least seven years.

How long do dog vaccine reactions last?

It is also common for a pet to develop a small, firm nodule at the vaccination site. It should begin to shrink and vanish within 14 days. If the swelling lasts longer than 3 weeks or appears to get larger or more painful, contact your veterinarian.

How effective is Lyme vaccine for dogs?

Answer: Not as effective as other vaccines we use. Lyme vaccines appear to prevent seroconversion or illness in most (60%–86%)3 vaccinates, but not consistently in all dogs, and not for a very long duration of immunity, thus annual (or even every 6 months10) boostering has been recommended.

How long do dog vaccinations last UK?

Booster jabs for distemper, parvovirus and canine hepatitis are usually needed every three years.

How long does kennel cough last after vaccine?

How Likely is the Vaccine to Prevent Kennel Cough? Occasionally, dogs will develop a mild version of kennel cough shortly after vaccination (two to seven days).

How long do rabies vaccines last for humans?

A booster dose as often as every 6 months to 2 years may be required for person at highest risk for exposure to rabies virus, such as persons who work with rabies virus in research laboratories or vaccine production facilities, veterinarians and staff, and animal control and wildlife officers.

Does dog need Lyme vaccine?

Some research suggests that vaccination appears to be fairly good in preventing infection in dogs not previously exposed to the Lyme organism. I word this carefully, though, because your dog already has been exposed, and there's no known benefit of vaccination after an initial exposure to the Lyme-causing bacteria.

How long does a rabies vaccine last humans?

A booster dose as often as every 6 months to 2 years may be required for person at highest risk for exposure to rabies virus, such as persons who work with rabies virus in research laboratories or vaccine production facilities, veterinarians and staff, and animal control and wildlife officers.

How long does immunity last after getting a vaccine?

Duration of protection by vaccine DiseaseEstimated duration of protection from vaccine after receipt of all recommended doses 1,2MeaslesLife-long in >96% vaccinesMumps>10 years in 90%, waning slowly over timeRubellaMost vaccinees (>90%) protected >15-20 yearsPneumococcal>4-5 years so far for conjugate vaccines8 weitere Zeilen

How long does Benadryl last for dogs?

In dogs, Benadryl usually lasts 8-12 hours.

Does dog Lyme vaccine work?

The Lyme vaccine for dogs works in a similar manner to LYMErix. But while it does help control the spread of the disease, it doesn't make up for the lack of a vaccine in humans.

How long will Fever last after vaccines?

Fever with most vaccines begins within 24 hours and lasts 1 to 2 days. Delayed Reactions. With the MMR and chickenpox shots, fever and rash can occur. These symptoms start later.

How long does teething last for dogs?

6 Months and Older: By the time, your puppy is about six months old or so, all of his puppy teeth should have fallen out, and his adult teeth should have grown in. In general, adults dogs have about 42 teeth (fun fact: that's about 10 more than people!).

How long do human rabies vaccines last?

A booster dose as often as every 6 months to 2 years may be required for person at highest risk for exposure to rabies virus, such as persons who work with rabies virus in research laboratories or vaccine production facilities, veterinarians and staff, and animal control and wildlife officers.

Is the Lyme disease vaccine safe for dogs?

In laboratory studies, dogs injected with the vaccine and later injected with active bacteria were found to be far less likely than unvaccinated dogs to develop lameness, fever, anorexia or other symptoms of Lyme disease. No serious side effects were noted in these studies.

How long does the biting stage last for puppies?

Nipping is a habit that you can correct. You can start training a puppy not to nip at around 6 to 8 weeks old, but he might not be able to stop himself during the teething process. Be patient during this stage; it can be uncomfortable for the puppy, but it doesn't last long.

How long does dawn last for?

Effects of latitude. The duration of the twilight period (e.g. between astronomical dawn and sunrise) varies greatly depending on the observer's latitude: from a little over 70 minutes at the Equator, to many hours in the polar regions.

How long does a cold last for?

Cold symptoms usually start 2 or 3 days after a person has been exposed to the virus. People with colds are most contagious for the first 3 or 4 days after the symptoms begin and can be contagious for up to 3 weeks. Although some colds can linger for as long as 2 weeks, most clear up within a week.

How long does Imodium last for?

The half-life of loperamide is estimated to have a range of 9.1 to 14.4 hours. The average is around 10.8 hours. Blood concentration levels of loperamide are highest around five hours after someone takes it in capsule form and around 2.5 hours after taking liquid Imodium or generic loperamide.

How long does the Iditarod last?

The Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race is an annual long-distance sled dog race run in early March from Anchorage to Nome, entirely within the US state of Alaska. Mushers and a team of 14 dogs, of which at least 5 must be on the towline at the finish line, cover the distance in 8–15 days or more.

How long does the infatuation stage last?

How long does infatuation last? This phase usually lasts from one to six months, but can last as long as two years, or as short as two days.

How long does the Super Bowl last?

The Super Bowl is typically four hours long. The game itself takes about three and a half hours, with a 30-minute halftime show built in. While a typical NFL game usually lasts about three hours, the Super Bowl is much longer because of the focus on the advertising.

Is Lyme vaccine necessary for dogs?

Most dogs tolerate the Lyme vaccine very well with minimal to no side effects and, for most dogs, the benefit of the vaccine outweighs the risks that any vaccination may involve.

How long does teething last for puppies?

Teething: Between approximately 4 months to 7 months of age, puppies start to break in their new adult teeth. Just like with babies, there is a certain discomfort associated with these new teeth coming in. This is the stage when puppy chewing is in full force.

How long does puppy breath last for?

Puppy breath lasts only until the puppy matures. Most puppies can be considered to be mature at one year of age.

How long does kennel cough last for?

How long does Kennel Cough last? Most dogs recover from Kennel Cough within 3-4 weeks. If a dog has a compromised immune system, is a young puppy or a senior, it may take up to 6 weeks for a complete recovery. However, the dog may still be a carrier of the disease for several weeks after he has recovered.

How long does gastroenteritis last for?

Depending on the cause, viral gastroenteritis symptoms may appear within one to three days after you're infected and can range from mild to severe. Symptoms usually last just a day or two, but occasionally they may persist as long as 10 days.

Should dogs get the Lyme vaccine?

Lyme can be treated with antibiotics. And there are many ways to prevent tick bites. But there's no vaccine available if you want extra protection against the disease (unless you're a dog). Yet in the late 1990s and early 2000s, a vaccine called LYMErix was sold to prevent between 76 and 92 percent of infections.

How long does the wonder week last?

All babies go through these wonder weeks at a predictable time, give or take a week or two. They usually last anywhere from 3 days to a few weeks (although, gulp, they can last up to 6 weeks long!), often increasing in length as baby gets older.

How long does the death rattle last?

How long after a death rattle does death occur? Terminal respiratory secretions occur as the body's breathing slows. This typically lasts no more than a few hours, but each patient is different and it can continue for as long as 24-48 hours.

How long does the play Rent last?

The Rent movie ran two hours and fifteen minutes, but it was an edited down version taking advantage of the magic of film to clean up sections that usually run longer. Most stage adaptations run up to 30 minutes more. Based on Puccini's La Bohème, theater productions typically run in the 2 hours and 45-minute range.

How long does the puppy stage last?

During the first eight weeks of age, skills not acquired may be lost forever. Most dogs are considered puppies for up to two years of age, though puppyish behavior may end sooner or last longer in some breeds. The stages listed below are essential and fairly constant.

How long does the puppy phase last?

It normally ceases when all adult teeth come in so it should be winding down about 5-6 months of age. The second phase of chewing is a development phase that normally begins in late puppyhood around 7-8 months old, and can last up to 2 years.

How long does the romantic stage last?

The Romance Stage begins when we fall in love with someone. It can last up to 2 years and then it ends as quickly as it began. In the romance stage, we experience love in its most immature form – infatuation.

How long does the Grand National last?

The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse,near Liverpool, England. First run in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase over an official distance of about 4 miles and 2½ furlongs, (or accurately 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km)), with horses jumping 30 fences over two laps.

Should my dog get the Lyme vaccine?

Some research suggests that vaccination appears to be fairly good in preventing infection in dogs not previously exposed to the Lyme organism. I word this carefully, though, because your dog already has been exposed, and there's no known benefit of vaccination after an initial exposure to the Lyme-causing bacteria.

How long do side effects of dog vaccines last?

They usually appear within 1-2 days of vaccination and then disappear. Nervous system problems have been seen after vaccination with modified live rabies (no longer available) and canine distemper vaccines.

How long do side effects from dog vaccines last?

Systemic reactions include fever, depression, loss of appetite, lethargy and weakness. They usually appear within 1-2 days of vaccination and then disappear. Nervous system problems have been seen after vaccination with modified live rabies (no longer available) and canine distemper vaccines.

How much is a Lyme vaccine for dogs?

Cost: $10-$15. This vaccine is administered twice for a total cost of $20-$30. The Coronavirus vaccine can also be given along with DAPPV to form a five-way vaccine, which may bring the cost down. Lyme: This vaccine protects against the tick-borne Lyme disease.

How often does a dog need Lyme vaccine?

States regulate the age at which it is first administered. A second vaccination is recommended after 1 year, then boosters every 3 years. Puppies need a booster 1 year after completing their initial series, then all dogs need a booster every 3 years or more often. Core dog vaccine.

How long does chicken and rice last for dogs?

How much chicken and rice can I feed my dog with diarrhea? For dogs that have only vomited once or twice over a period of at least 6 hours: Offer a small amount of boiled white meat chicken without the skin and bones and white rice. Feed this until your dogs stool return back to normal and are firm.

How long does heat stroke last for dogs?

The effects of heatstroke can continue for 48 to 72 hours longer, even if your dog appears normal. William Grant, DVM, a veterinarian for 20 years and former president of the Southern California Veterinary Medical Association, has treated hundreds of cases of heatstroke, ranging from mild to fatal.

How long does a false pregnancy last for a dog?

With a false pregnancy, remember that your dog is following her mothering instincts and this really cannot be controlled. These behaviors may fade after about three weeks, but all dogs are unique and some may continue these behaviors longer than a month or so.

How long does a false pregnancy last for dogs?

Eventually, she will return back to normal. With a false pregnancy, remember that your dog is following her mothering instincts and this really cannot be controlled. These behaviors may fade after about three weeks, but all dogs are unique and some may continue these behaviors longer than a month or so.

How often do dogs need Lyme vaccine?

States regulate the age at which it is first administered. A second vaccination is recommended after 1 year, then boosters every 3 years. Puppies need a booster 1 year after completing their initial series, then all dogs need a booster every 3 years or more often. Core dog vaccine.

How long does the parvovirus last in dogs?

Most deaths from parvovirus occur within 48 to 72 hours following the onset of clinical signs. If your puppy or dog shows any of these signs, you should contact your veterinarian immediately.

How long does the first stage of dog Labour last?

The first stage is when the uterus begins to contract and cause the cervix to dilate. Stage one can last 6 to 12 hours in the dog. Signs that you may see in the female are restlessness, panting, pacing, or "nesting" type behavior. Stages two and three alternate in the dog.

How long does the first stage of dog labor last?

Your dog goes beyond her proposed due date. You do not see evidence that Stage 1 labor has started 24-36 hours after the drop in rectal temperature mentioned above. Stage 1 labor has not progressed to Stage 2 labor after 24 hours. The first puppy has not been delivered after 1 hour of active labor.

How long does the smell of dog urine last?

Left untreated, urine takes up to five years to off-gas on it's own. The oxidizers do this work within hours, not years,” Hatch said. The technicians leave the solution on the carpet to work for 24 hours, after which time the urine, bacteria and any odor will be gone.

How long do puppy vaccine side effects last?

Timing of Vaccine Reactions. Most reactions occur within 48 hours of your dog being vaccinated, but some take longer. If your dog has a mild reaction, it generally will last a short time, just a few days.

How long do side effects of vaccines last?

Shot sites can have swelling, redness and pain. Most often, these symptoms start within 24 hours of the shot. They most often last 3 to 5 days. With the DTaP vaccine, they can last up to 7 days.

How long does a seizure last for a dog?

If a seizure lasts more than three to five minutes, this is an emergency and you should bring your dog to a veterinarian. Their body temperature can rise quickly and can be a problem. Especially as pets age, seizures that last that long can cause problems with their brain and cause brain damage.

How long does laser treatment for dogs last?

Treatments vary in length, but most sites require 3 to 8 minutes. Laser treatments for dogs are cumulative, so each additional treatment facilitates a greater improvement in your dog's condition.

How long does a bee sting last for dogs?

This usually goes away on its own within a day or so. Signs of a potentially serious reaction usually develop within 10 to 30 minutes of the sting and include swelling of the eyes and face, which can lead to difficulty breathing.

How long do side effects from vaccines last?

Shot sites can have swelling, redness and pain. Most often, these symptoms start within 24 hours of the shot. They most often last 3 to 5 days. With the DTaP vaccine, they can last up to 7 days.

How long do side effects of 2 month vaccines last?

With the DTaP vaccine, they can last up to 7 days. Fever. Fever with most vaccines begins within 24 hours and lasts 1 to 2 days. Delayed Reactions.

How long does the flu last in dogs?

Dog Flu Symptoms. Dogs that come down with a mild form of the flu will display a fever and cough that will last one to three weeks, Collins says.

How long does homemade dog food last in the fridge?

Once you've opened a can of dog food, it can be stored in the refrigerator for up to two days.

How long does the second stage of dog labor last?

These signs may last for up to twenty-four hours and are part of first stage labor. Second stage labor is the stage of delivery. Your dog will start to strain. If straining continues for two hours without any signs of a watery discharge ("water breaking") or puppies, you should contact your veterinarian.

Do dogs need Lyme vaccine?

Some research suggests that vaccination appears to be fairly good in preventing infection in dogs not previously exposed to the Lyme organism. I word this carefully, though, because your dog already has been exposed, and there's no known benefit of vaccination after an initial exposure to the Lyme-causing bacteria.

How long does Cozmo last?

Cozmo has an internal lithium-ion battery that is charged using the charging dock and the wall adapter (110-220V) that comes with Cozmo. It takes about 12 minutes to fully charge Cozmo and this will provide 1-2 hrs of play time.

How long does bereavement last?

Each bereavement is unique, and you can't tell how long it will last. "In general, the death and the person might not constantly be at the forefront of your mind after around 18 months," says Sarah. This period may be shorter or longer for some people, which is normal.

How long does scabies last?

The scabies infestation usually lasts until treated. People are usually no longer contagious within 24 hours of treatment. Even after successful treatment, the dead mites, dead eggs, and fecal material will remain in the skin for 2 to 4 weeks (until the skin grows out). Thus, intense itching is expected to continue.

How long does Pepto last?

If your symptoms get worse or last more than 2 days, stop use and consult your physician. Children's Pepto relieves heartburn, sour stomach, acid indigestion, and upset stomach due to these symptoms or overindulgence in food and drink.

How long does Lent last?

In Protestant and Western Orthodox Churches, the season of Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday to the evening of Holy Saturday. This calculation makes Lent last 46 days if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40 days if they are excluded.

How long does Dramamine last?

Generally speaking most adults and children over 12 years of age should take one to two tablets every four to six hours, usually about a half hour before beginning the activity that is known to produce motion sickness.

How long does plasma last?

Early Plasma TVs had a half-life of about 30,000 hours. However, due to technology improvements made in recent years, most plasma sets have 60,000-hour lifespans, with some sets rated as high as 100,000 hours.

How long does Capstar last?

A dose of Capstar provides immediate relief from adult fleas already on your dog or cat. Capstar begins working within 30 minutes and more than 90% of adult fleas will be killed within 4 hours on dogs, and within 6 hours on cats. While Capstar begins working quickly, the effects do not last beyond the initial 24 hours.

How long does Meningitis last?

Most people who get mild viral meningitis completely recover on their own usually within 7 to 10 days. However, people with meningitis caused by certain viruses such as herpesvirus and influenza, will usually need and get better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine.

How long does roundup last?

In fact, the majority of residentially sold weed killers are required by law to break down in the soil within 14 days, if not sooner. Take Roundup, for example, which contains glyphosate. This post-emergent, nonselective herbicide generally breaks down within days to weeks depending on the Roundup product you have.

How long does whelping last?

These signs may last for up to twenty-four hours and are part of first stage labor. Second stage labor is the stage of delivery. Your dog will start to strain. If straining continues for two hours without any signs of a watery discharge ("water breaking") or puppies, you should contact your veterinarian.

How long does hantavirus last?

The disease caused by Hantavirus is called Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Symptoms appear within 1 to 5 weeks after exposure. The average is 2 to 4 weeks. This disease is extremely serious since about 40% of the people who get the disease die.

How long does leishmaniasis last?

How Long Does the Disease Last? Although some cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis clear up on their own, most cases of mucocutaneous and visceral infection will not get better without treatment. Left untreated, visceral disease typically leads to death within 2 years.

How long do Dog Rocks last for?

1 small pack of Dog Rocks is good in one dog's water bowl for 2 months 1 bulk pack of Dog Rocks is good for one dog's bowl for 6 months or multiple dogs bowls for 2 months.

How long does Melena last?

Melena usually means bleeding from this location. It takes 50 ml or more of blood in the stomach to turn stools black. One to two liters of blood administered orally will cause bloody or tarry stools for up to 5 days, the first such stool usually appearing within 4 to 20 hours after ingestion.

How long does parvovirus last?

It is more common in adults, especially women. Some adults with fifth disease may only have painful joints, usually in the hands, feet, or knees, and no other symptoms. The joint pain usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks, but it can last for months or longer. It usually goes away without any long-term problems.

How long does leptospirosis last?

Generally, illness begins suddenly with fever and other symptoms within 7 to 10 days. The illness can last from a few days to three weeks or possibly longer. Recovery may take several months without treatment. When and for how long is a person able to spread this infection?