# How much chocolate will kill a dog?

## Chocolate Toxicity in Dogs - How much chocolate is too much? Dr Kate Adams, Bondi Vet

**Dog** owners often ask how **much chocolate can kill a dog**.

While there is no right or wrong answer to this, we know **dogs** show symptoms of poisoning when they eat 20mg of theobromine (the toxic chemical in **chocolate**) for every kilogram they weigh.

These symptoms become severe at 40 to 50mg per kg.

## How Much Chocolate Is Toxic To Dogs?

### Related Questions

## How much chocolate will kill a human?

Fortunately, the median lethal dose for humans is 1000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. That means that an 80 kg human would have to eat 5.7 kg of unsweetened dark chocolate for it to kill them (going by a theobromine content of 14 milligrams per gram of dark chocolate, although it varies).

## How much chocolate will kill a 50 lb dog?

If, however, they eat some top of the line dark chocolate with 15 g/kg theobromine, then they would start to feel the effects at about 25 g (about 1 ounce) of chocolate, and have a 50–50 change of death after eating 470g (about a pound) of the stuff. Obviously, bigger dogs can take more without getting sick.

## How much chocolate cake will kill a dog?

Rodrigo weighs 70 pounds, he ate what amounts to a cup (or 8 ounces) of chocolate cake. The article I found went on to say that 20 ounces of milk chocolate, 10 ounces of semi-sweet chocolate, and 2.25 ounces of baking chocolate can potentially kill a 22 pound dog.

## Here Is What Happens If a Dog Eat a Chocolate - Don't Give a Chocolate to Your Dogs

## How much chocolate will kill a dog UK?

Milk chocolate: 1 ounce per pound of body weight. Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog.

## How much chocolate will kill a dog chart?

1/3 pound can be poisonous for a 20 pound dog and 1/6 pound for a 10 pound dog. Baking chocolate:1 ounce is lethal per pound of body weight.

## How much white chocolate will kill a dog?

Even a tiny amount can poison your pet. Dogs cannot metabolize theobromine, a component of chocolate, so it quickly builds to toxic levels and can lead to death. White chocolate has lower levels of theobromine, but is still dangerous in any amount.

## How much chocolate will kill you?

Fortunately, the median lethal dose for humans is 1000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. That means that an 80 kg human would have to eat 5.7 kg of unsweetened dark chocolate for it to kill them (going by a theobromine content of 14 milligrams per gram of dark chocolate, although it varies).

## How much chocolate will kill a 20lb dog?

It will take just one ounce per pound of body weight of your dog to deadly poison it. One pound of milk chocolate is poisonous enough for 20 pound dog. While half pound is enough for a 10 pound dog. From our study, we found that the average chocolate bar found in the market contains 2/3 ounces of milk chocolate.

## My Dog Ate Chocolate, What Do I Do?

## How much chocolate will kill a 10 pound dog?

1/3 pound can be poisonous for a 20 pound dog and 1/6 pound for a 10 pound dog. Baking chocolate:1 ounce is lethal per pound of body weight.

## Will chocolate kill a dog?

The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea.

## Will chocolate kill dogs?

The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea.

## How much chocolate kills a dog?

If your dog ingests an amount CLOSE to 20 mg or more of toxic ingredient per pound of dog, you need to call the vet right away. To illustrate the math, let's say you have a 20-pound dog. We'll call her Cookie. Example 1: Cookie (bad dog!) has eaten 3 ounces of dark chocolate.

## How much chocolate can kill a dog?

Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog. Semi-sweet chocolate has a similar toxic level.

## Will Chocolate Kill Your Dog? | COLOSSAL QUESTIONS

## How much chocolate will harm a dog?

If your dog ingests an amount CLOSE to 20 mg or more of toxic ingredient per pound of dog, you need to call the vet right away. To illustrate the math, let's say you have a 20-pound dog. We'll call her Cookie. Example 1: Cookie (bad dog!) has eaten 3 ounces of dark chocolate.

## How much chocolate would kill a dog?

Dog owners often ask how much chocolate can kill a dog. While there is no right or wrong answer to this, we know dogs show symptoms of poisoning when they eat 20mg of theobromine (the toxic chemical in chocolate) for every kilogram they weigh. These symptoms become severe at 40 to 50mg per kg.

## Will a chocolate chip kill a dog?

Chocolate is not good for dogs and cats. If your dog ate 12 cookies, it would probably make him sick. I doubt seriously that your dog will suffer any ill effects from eating one chocolate chip, unless. The substance in chocolate, theobromine, affects the nervous system and the digestive tract.

## Will a chocolate brownie kill a dog?

I will presume that the brownies you refer to are chocolate brownies. If made from regular cooking chocolate then it is possible for a dog to get extremely unwell and possibly die of toxic shock. In general, milk chocolate and sweet compound chocolate have less Theobromine to worry about.

## Will a chocolate donut kill a dog?

Some donuts also have caffeine or chocolate, which can kill dogs. In fact, too much sugar and fat can actually lead dogs to develop pancreatitis. Donuts have no nutritional value for dogs. Since dogs need less calories than humans to be healthy, feeding them donuts can cause weight problems, too.

## Will a chocolate bar kill a dog?

In large enough amounts, chocolate and cocoa products can kill your dog. The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system.

## Will White Chocolate kill a dog?

Dogs cannot metabolize theobromine, a component of chocolate, so it quickly builds to toxic levels and can lead to death. White chocolate has lower levels of theobromine, but is still dangerous in any amount. If your dog eats white chocolate, they need emergency veterinary care.

## Will chocolate covered raisins kill a dog?

My dog ate one chocolate covered raisin, will that hurt he… You are correct that both raisins and chocolate can be toxic to dogs but both the raisins and the chocolate must be in much higher quantities even for very small dogs to cause any significant problem.

## Will chocolate actually kill a dog?

Theobromine is a bitter alkaloid of the cocoa plant found in chocolate. Although harmless to humans, it can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, convulsions and even death in animals that digest theobromine slowly, such as dogs. The lethal dosage is between 250 and 500mg per kg of body weight.

## Will chocolate really kill a dog?

In large enough amounts, chocolate and cocoa products can kill your dog. The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea.

## Will eating chocolate kill a dog?

In large enough amounts, chocolate and cocoa products can kill your dog. The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system.

## Will chocolate ice cream kill a dog?

It takes a lot of chocolate to kill a dog. Pure bakers chocolate is what's really dangerous. Don't just give your dog a bowl of chocolate ice cream that's just stupid. yogurt is good for dogs.

## Will milk chocolate kill a dog?

In large enough amounts, chocolate and cocoa products can kill your dog. The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system.

## How much chocolate can kill a puppy?

A lethal dose of theobromine is .67 to 1.3 ounces of baking chocolate per 2.2 pounds of dog. That means your 10-pound puppy can become sick or even die simply by licking the chocolate frosting off a large cake, swiping a truffle, or lapping up your hot cocoa.

## How much chocolate can kill a human?

Fortunately, the median lethal dose for humans is 1000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight. That means that an 80 kg human would have to eat 5.7 kg of unsweetened dark chocolate for it to kill them (going by a theobromine content of 14 milligrams per gram of dark chocolate, although it varies).

## How much chocolate can kill your dog?

Dog owners often ask how much chocolate can kill a dog. While there is no right or wrong answer to this, we know dogs show symptoms of poisoning when they eat 20mg of theobromine (the toxic chemical in chocolate) for every kilogram they weigh. These symptoms become severe at 40 to 50mg per kg.

## How much chocolate can kill a 40 lb dog?

Milk chocolate: 1 ounce per pound of body weight. Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog.

## Will a chocolate chip cookie kill a dog?

If you think your pooch might've eaten chocolate -- especially the darker kinds -- call your vet right away. She'll ask about your dog's size, what kind of chocolate he ate, and how much. A chocolate chip cookie can cause problems for a little dog, and a bag of chocolate chips can spell trouble for a big one.

## How much chocolate can kill a dog chart?

Milk chocolate: 1 ounce per pound of body weight. Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog.

## How much chocolate will make a dog sick?

So, if your dog weighs 20 pounds and ate 2 ounces of dark semisweet chocolate, the math works out to 155 mg methylxanthine per ounce of chocolate times 2 ounces divided by 20 pounds equaling 15.5 mg/pound, which is enough to cause a problem.

## How much chocolate can kill a small dog?

Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog. Semi-sweet chocolate has a similar toxic level.

## How much milk chocolate can kill a dog?

Typically, a toxic dose of milk chocolate is 5 ounces per pound of body weight. While a bite of chocolate generally isn't a concern, a 10-pound puppy can still get very sick from eating as little as 8 ounces of milk chocolate.

## How much alcohol will kill a dog?

The toxic dose of 100% (or 200 proof) alcohol in dogs has recently been reported to be about 0.59 ounces per pound of body weight (8 ml per kg), with death occurring 12 to 24 hours after ingestion (14). Alcohol poisoning in dogs usually happens after accidental ingestion of alcoholic beverages (15, 16, 17).

## How much nicotine will kill a dog?

9-12 mg/kg of nicotine will kill 50% of dogs; it often depends on the size of the dog and the amount ingested.

## How much Benadryl will kill a dog?

Ok Benadryl is absolutely safe to give to dogs in the correct dose, for example I give my 22 LB dog a single 25 mg dose of Benadryl. Too much Benadryl will cause seizures. Most likely it will not kill your dog but you really don't want to give to much because seizures are serious.

## How much xylitol will kill a dog?

The toxic dose of xylitol is 0.1g per 1 kg – and a stick of chewing gum can contain 0.3-0.4g of xylitol”. The two major consequences of xylitol ingestion, says Dr Mudie, are severe hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar), and liver necrosis (death of liver tissue).

## How much garlic will kill a dog?

10 to 15 pounds – up to ½ clove daily. 20 to 40 pounds – up to 1 clove daily.

## How much Ratsak will kill a dog?

A 10 pound dog will likely be more quickly affected by rat poison than a 100 pound dog. One small pellet of rat poison may not be enough to make a large dog sick for hours, but could potentially kill a small dog very quickly. When it comes to large dogs, it takes quite a bit of poison consumption to show any symptoms.

## How much onion will kill a dog?

And it nearly killed him. Not surprisingly, pets actually have to eat the onions to get sick, but depending on their size, they may not have to eat much. One fourth of a cup can make a 20-pound dog sick while several cups may be needed to make a large dog sick.

## What amount of chocolate will kill a dog?

## Will a piece of chocolate cake kill my dog?

Eating a crumb of chocolate cake or a very small piece of a chocolate bar, on the other hand, probably won't kill your dog, especially if it is a larger breed, but chocolate should never be fed as a treat.

## Will one bite of chocolate kill a dog?

Typically, a toxic dose of milk chocolate is 5 ounces per pound of body weight. While a bite of chocolate generally isn't a concern, a 10-pound puppy can still get very sick from eating as little as 8 ounces of milk chocolate. A lethal dose of theobromine is .67 to 1.3 ounces of baking chocolate per 2.2 pounds of dog.

## Will a piece of chocolate kill my dog?

In large enough amounts, chocolate and cocoa products can kill your dog. The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea.

## How much salt will kill a plant?

You can add rock or table salt to water until it dissolves. Make a fairly weak mixture to start with – 3:1 ratio of water to salt. You can increase the amount of salt daily until the salt begins to kills the target plant. Adding a little bit of dish soap and white vinegar helps with weed killing effectiveness.

## Will chocolate hurt a dog?

The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea. With large amounts, theobromine can produce muscle tremors, seizures, an irregular heartbeat, internal bleeding or a heart attack.

## Can chocolate kill a dog?

The toxic component of chocolate is theobromine. Humans easily metabolize theobromine, but dogs process it much more slowly, allowing it to build up to toxic levels in their system. A small amount of chocolate will probably only give your dog an upset stomach with vomiting or diarrhea.

## How much chocolate makes a dog sick?

So, if your dog weighs 20 pounds and ate 2 ounces of dark semisweet chocolate, the math works out to 155 mg methylxanthine per ounce of chocolate times 2 ounces divided by 20 pounds equaling 15.5 mg/pound, which is enough to cause a problem.

## How much chocolate hurts a dog?

Cardiac symptoms of chocolate toxicity occur around 40 to 50 mg/kg, and seizures occur at dosages greater than 60 mg/kg. In simpler terms, that means a very concerning dose of chocolate is approximately one ounce of milk chocolate per pound of body weight.

## How much chocolate can harm a dog?

Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate. It would take 2-3 candy bars to poison a 10 pound dog. Semi-sweet chocolate has a similar toxic level.

## How much chocolate can a dog eat?

If your dog ingests an amount CLOSE to 20 mg or more of toxic ingredient per pound of dog, you need to call the vet right away. To illustrate the math, let's say you have a 20-pound dog. We'll call her Cookie. Example 1: Cookie (bad dog!) has eaten 3 ounces of dark chocolate.

## How much caffeine will kill you?

250–300 mg of caffeine a day is a moderate amount. That is as much caffeine that is in three cups of coffee (8oz each cup). More than 750–1000 mg a day is a significant amount, but is very unlikely to kill someone. The Lethal Dose 50 of caffeine is 192 mg per kilogram, in rats.

## Can a chocolate cookie kill a dog?

To give a better idea, a chocolate bar contains about 2–3 ounces of milk chocolate. So 2 or 3 candy bars can kill a 10 lb dog. Once at the vet, they will assess how serious your dogs condition is and more than likely to be on the safe side they will give him charcoal orally. Don't try this at home.

## How much chocolate can hurt a dog?

Cardiac symptoms of chocolate toxicity occur around 40 to 50 mg/kg, and seizures occur at dosages greater than 60 mg/kg. In simpler terms, that means a very concerning dose of chocolate is approximately one ounce of milk chocolate per pound of body weight.

## Can a little chocolate kill a dog?

Typically, a toxic dose of milk chocolate is 5 ounces per pound of body weight. While a bite of chocolate generally isn't a concern, a 10-pound puppy can still get very sick from eating as little as 8 ounces of milk chocolate. A lethal dose of theobromine is .67 to 1.3 ounces of baking chocolate per 2.2 pounds of dog.

## Can a chocolate chip kill a dog?

Other than the foil in his poop, he was fine. NO no I doubt she'll die from a chocolate chip. Approximately one pound of milk chocolate is poisonous to a 20-pound dog; one-half pound for a 10-pound dog. The average chocolate bar contains 2 to 3 ounces of milk chocolate.

## Can a chocolate orange kill a dog?

The 175g chocolate orange contained enough theobromine – the chemical highly toxic to dogs – to seriously harm Benny. “If owners even suspect that their dog has eaten chocolate, it's always best to get them checked over by a vet as the consequences can be fatal.”

## Does chocolate kill dogs?

## What Chocolate kills dogs?

## How long will a dog live after eating chocolate?

In most cases, signs of chocolate poisoning show up approximately 6 to 12 hours after your dog has eaten the chocolate. Symptoms may last for as long as 72 hours, so it is important you are there to monitor your pup's behavior.

## How long after a dog eats chocolate will symptoms show?

Signs of chocolate poisoning usually appear within 6 to 12 hours after your dog has eaten it, may last up to 72 hours, and include the following: Vomiting. Diarrhea. Restlessness.

## Will a chocolate cookie hurt my dog?

The sweet treat can lead to illness and even death in dogs. Vets say it's one of the most common causes of dog poisoning. A chocolate chip cookie can cause problems for a little dog, and a bag of chocolate chips can spell trouble for a big one.

## Can one chocolate chip kill a dog?

Vets say it's one of the most common causes of dog poisoning. If you think your pooch might've eaten chocolate -- especially the darker kinds -- call your vet right away. A chocolate chip cookie can cause problems for a little dog, and a bag of chocolate chips can spell trouble for a big one.

## How soon will a dog get sick after eating chocolate?

Signs of chocolate poisoning usually appear within 6 to 12 hours after your dog has eaten it, may last up to 72 hours, and include the following: Vomiting.

## Will chocolate chip cookies hurt a dog?

No. The main ingredients in chocolate chip cookies are not good for dogs, including chocolate, wheat flour, and sugar. In particular, chocolate is toxic to dogs because it contains methylxanthines like caffeine and theobromine, which dogs cannot break down like we can.

## Can chocolate kill dogs?

## Can chocolate cake kill a dog?

## Can white chocolate kill a dog?

Dogs cannot metabolize theobromine, a component of chocolate, so it quickly builds to toxic levels and can lead to death. White chocolate has lower levels of theobromine, but is still dangerous in any amount. If your dog eats white chocolate, they need emergency veterinary care.

## How long will a dog die after eating chocolate?

In most cases, signs of chocolate poisoning show up approximately 6 to 12 hours after your dog has eaten the chocolate. Symptoms may last for as long as 72 hours, so it is important you are there to monitor your pup's behavior.

## How much dark chocolate is too much for a dog?

## How much chocolate is too much for a dog?

## Will a chocolate brownie hurt my dog?

The main ingredients in brownies are not good for dogs, including chocolate, wheat flour, and sugar. In particular, chocolate is toxic to dogs because it contains methylxanthines like caffeine and theobromine, which dogs cannot break down like we can. If your dog has eaten brownies, be sure to call your vet.

## Can chocolate really kill a dog?

## Can chocolate ice cream kill a dog?

Milk based products can cause diarrhoea in fogs and it can allergic reactions. Chocolate contain theobromine which may cause the dog to vomit and make them thirsty. So chocolate ice creams are a big no no. Both ice cream (lactose) and chocolate are not good foods for dogs.

## How long after eating chocolate will a dog get sick?

Signs of chocolate poisoning usually appear within 6 to 12 hours after your dog has eaten it, may last up to 72 hours, and include the following: Vomiting.

## Will White Chocolate hurt a dog?

White chocolate contains harmful cocoa butter, sugar and milk but only tiny amounts of toxic theobromine. Emergency vets have confirmed white chocolate is highly unlikely to poison a dog, even if it is labelled as being high in cocoa solids.

## Does chocolate actually kill dogs?

## Can chocolate cake kill dogs?

How much chocolate can kill a dog? Rodrigo weighs 70 pounds, he ate what amounts to a cup (or 8 ounces) of chocolate cake. The article I found went on to say that 20 ounces of milk chocolate, 10 ounces of semi-sweet chocolate, and 2.25 ounces of baking chocolate can potentially kill a 22 pound dog.

## Why does chocolate kill dogs?

## Can chocolate chips kill dogs?

One chocolate chip won't hurt your dog. Put the rest of them up, though, because a lot of them could! I'm short no. Chocolate is toxic to dogs, yes, but just like most things there are factors.

## How many grapes will kill a dog?

According to Small Animal Toxicology, there's a way to get a rough estimate of the toxic amount of grapes or raisins for a dog. Grapes: Dangerous doses begin at about 1 or 2 grapes for a 10-pound dog, and 3 or 4 grapes for a 20-pound dog.

## How many raisins will kill a dog?

The minimum toxic dose is approximately1 grape per pound of body weight. Raisins, having lost their water content are considered more toxic at 6 raisins per kg of body weight, or 2-3 raisins per pound of body weight. Think how many raisins are in ONE small snack pack of raisins ? maybe enough to kill your dog.

## Will dogs throw up chocolate?

If your dog just ate the chocolate and is vomiting, let him vomit. Clean it up before he re-ingests it. Toxicity depends on three things: how much the dog ate, the body weight of the dog, and the type of chocolate. The things that make chocolate toxic to dogs are theobromine and caffeine, especially the theobromine.

## Does chocolate kill mice?

In an article in Old Fashioned Living, Marilyn Pokorney states that mice like to eat foods high in fat and sugar. Such types of food are often used as bait to trap mice. Chocolate is poisonous to mice and can kill them instantly. It is not guaranteed, however, that the mouse will eat just any chocolate.

## How much chocolate is theobromine?

28 grams (1 oz) of milk chocolate contains approximately 60 milligrams (1 grain) of theobromine, while the same amount of dark chocolate contains about 200 milligrams (3 grains). Cocoa beans naturally contain approximately 1% theobromine.

## How much chocolate is toxic to dogs?

## How much milk chocolate can a dog eat?

For milk chocolate, any ingestion of more than 0.5 ounces per pound of body weight may put dogs at risk for chocolate poisoning. Ingestions of more than 0.13 ounces per pound of dark or semi-sweet chocolate may cause poisoning.

## How much dark chocolate is bad for a dog?

## How much chocolate is poisonous to a dog?

## How much dark chocolate is toxic for a dog?

## How much dark chocolate is dangerous for a dog?

## How much chocolate is toxic for dogs?

"The amount of toxic theobromine varies with the type of chocolate." Toxic doses of theobromine are reported to be as low as 20 mg/kg, where agitation, hyperactivity and gastrointestinal signs (such as drooling, vomiting, and diarrhea - all which may smell like chocolate) can be seen.

## How much chocolate is poisonous to dogs?

"The amount of toxic theobromine varies with the type of chocolate." Toxic doses of theobromine are reported to be as low as 20 mg/kg, where agitation, hyperactivity and gastrointestinal signs (such as drooling, vomiting, and diarrhea - all which may smell like chocolate) can be seen.

## How much chocolate can a dog eat without dying?

Remember, anything close to 20 or above is an emergency. Example 2: What if this was 3 ounces of milk chocolate? Let's do the math: 3 oz x 58 mg divided by 20 pounds of dog weight = 8.7. You are not anywhere close to the toxic “magic number” of 20.

## How much chocolate can a dog eat UK?

For milk chocolate, eating more than half an ounce per pound of body weight may put your dog at risk for chocolate poisoning. For dark or semi-sweet chocolate, eating more than 0.13 ounces per pound of body weight may cause chocolate poisoning in dogs.

## How much semi sweet chocolate can a dog eat?

Ingestions of more than 0.13 ounces per pound of dark or semi-sweet chocolate may cause poisoning.

## How much chocolate is dangerous to a dog?

For milk chocolate, any ingestion of more than 0.5 ounces per pound of body weight may put dogs at risk for chocolate poisoning. Ingestions of more than 0.13 ounces per pound of dark or semi-sweet chocolate may cause poisoning.

## Can chocolate kill cats?

Chocolate can be lethal for cats. Although most cats won't eat it on their own, they can be coaxed to eat it by owners and others who think they are giving the cat a treat. The toxic agent in chocolate is theobromine. Eating chocolate can cause abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures, and death.