Is End Stage COPD painful?

Understanding COPD

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Pain Control Lacking in End-Stage COPD Patients.

Most people hear “hospice” and think “cancer,” but many end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients also receive hospice care either at home or an inpatient facility when their caregivers can no longer provide the medical attention they need.

COPD: What to Know

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What are signs of end stage COPD?

End-stages symptoms a chronic cough. difficulty finishing a meal due to shortness of breath. sudden, acute exacerbations or worsening of the condition. frequent phlegm production. low blood oxygen levels if the person is not using additional oxygen. need for oxygen on a regular basis.

Is end stage kidney failure painful?

Pain is a major health problem in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) affecting half of the dialysis patients; most of them experience a moderate to severe degree of pain.

Is end stage kidney failure in dogs painful?

Renal insufficiency or failure occurs when the kidneys can no longer remove toxic wastes from the body. These substances build up and symptoms of excess thirst, nausea, pain, weakness, appetite loss, intestinal bleeding and even seizures develop. Below is the description of each stage of renal disease.

Emphysema vs Bronchitis

Is death by COPD painful?

It is the “experience” of shortness of breath, and it may or may not be associated with suffering. The patient who is dying of COPD or lung cancer will typically experience a worsening in their dyspnea level as their disease progresses.

Is dying from COPD a painful death?

Some patients with COPD will die from lung cancer or cardiovascular disease 2, 75, whereas others die from progressive respiratory dysfunction, or a systemic complication of it 14.

How long is end stage liver failure?

The parts of the liver that have scar tissue cannot work as well as they would in a healthy liver. Chronic liver failure, also called end-stage liver disease, may take from several months to many years to develop. Because of this, symptoms may not appear when the disease first starts.

How long is end stage CHF?

End Stage Heart Failure Signs It Might Be Time for Hospice. Patients are considered to be in the terminal end stage of heart disease when they have a life expectancy of six months or less. Only a doctor can make a clinical determination of congestive heart failure life expectancy.

What are the final stages of COPD before death?

Symptoms of late-stage COPD frequent coughing accompanied by chest pain. frequent infections and flares. difficulty falling and staying asleep. loss of appetite. weight loss. constipation. incontinence. poor circulation, which can cause cold hands, arms, feet, and legs, plus blotchy skin.

COPD and Cognitive Impairment Study - Mayo Clinic

How long does end stage CHF last?

End Stage Heart Failure Signs It Might Be Time for Hospice. Patients are considered to be in the terminal end stage of heart disease when they have a life expectancy of six months or less. Only a doctor can make a clinical determination of congestive heart failure life expectancy.

What are the symptoms of end stage liver cancer?

Symptoms of end-stage liver disease may include: Easy bleeding or bruising. Persistent or recurring yellowing of your skin and eyes (jaundice) Intense itching. Loss of appetite. Nausea. Swelling due to fluid buildup in your abdomen and legs. Problems with concentration and memory.

What are the signs of end stage colon cancer?

Many people don't have symptoms at first, if colon cancer is in their liver. If they do have symptoms, they may be vague and can include: Loss of appetite or feeling full early. Fatigue.

What are the signs of end stage liver cancer?

Symptoms of end-stage liver disease may include: Easy bleeding or bruising. Persistent or recurring yellowing of your skin and eyes (jaundice) Intense itching. Loss of appetite. Nausea. Swelling due to fluid buildup in your abdomen and legs. Problems with concentration and memory.

What are the signs of end stage dementia?

A person with late stage dementia may: behave in ways that seem unusual. This can include periods of restlessness and agitation and repetitive movements. They may also experience hallucinations where the person believes they see, hear, feel or taste things that are not there.

Diagnosis and Evaluation of COPD

What are the symptoms of end stage lung disease?

Symptoms of End-stage Lung Disease Shortness of breath. Feeling that you cannot get enough air, which may get worse. Fatigue. Feeling easily tired. Fast breathing. Rapid breathing sounds. Confusion. Feeling confused; due to high levels of carbon dioxide in your bloodstream.

Can you die from end stage liver disease?

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is synonymous with advanced liver disease, liver failure, and decompensated cirrhosis, given the general irreversibility of these conditions. Even with the hope of transplant, most patients with decompensated cirrhosis will die of this condition.

What are end stages of hemangiosarcoma in dogs?

What is hemangiosarcoma? Hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an aggressive, malignant cancer of the blood vessels that often grows as a mass in the spleen, liver, or heart, but can also be found in other parts in the body. Animals usually present to their veterinarian for sudden collapse due to internal bleeding from the mass.

What are the signs of end stage liver failure?

Symptoms of end-stage liver disease may include: Easy bleeding or bruising. Persistent or recurring yellowing of your skin and eyes (jaundice)

What are the symptoms of end stage brain cancer?

The main symptoms reported in terminally ill cancer patients are fatigue and anorexia, followed by pain, nausea, constipation, delirium, and dyspnea.

What are the symptoms of end stage pulmonary hypertension?

As the disease progresses, symptoms become worse. Pulmonary hypertension symptoms include: Shortness of breath (dyspnea), initially while exercising and eventually while at rest. Fatigue.

What happens to the body in end stage liver failure?

It may cause shortness of breath if there's pressure on the diaphragm. Fluid buildup may also cause nausea, loss of appetite, and abdominal and back pain. Fluid buildup may also occur in the person's feet and legs. Another complication of end-stage liver failure is reduced brain function.

Can COPD cause sudden death?

The most common cause of death was respiratory (35%) with approximately 75% occurring after a COPD exacerbation. Cardiovascular deaths occurred in 26% of cases, with the most common cause being sudden death. Cancer caused 21% of deaths, about two-thirds being due to lung cancer.

What are the end stages of congestive heart failure in dogs?

During the late stages of congestive heart failure, your dog may exhibit symptoms including: Severe weight loss. Chronic diarrhea or vomiting. Swelling of the legs. Bluish or gray-colored gums or tongue. Restlessness. Difficulty breathing and ongoing coughing. Fluid buildup (ascites) leading to a swollen abdomen.

What are the symptoms of end stage kidney failure in dogs?

These substances build up and symptoms of excess thirst, nausea, pain, weakness, appetite loss, intestinal bleeding and even seizures develop. Below is the description of each stage of renal disease.

Can I live 20 years with COPD?

People are living longer with COPD through the use of inhaler medications, portable oxygen systems and pulmonary rehabilitation. But if you're in the more severe COPD stages (Stage 3 and Stage 4 COPD), plus you still smoke, your COPD life expectancy is reduced by more; studies suggest you lose about six years of life.

What is Stage D heart failure?

ABSTRACT. We propose that stage D advanced heart failure be defined as the presence of progressive and/or persistent severe signs and symptoms of heart failure despite optimized medical, surgical, and device therapy. Impor- tantly, the progressive decline should be primarily driven by the heart failure syndrome.

How long do people with COPD live?

For example, in a 2009 study published in the International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, a 65-year-old man with COPD who currently smokes tobacco has the following reductions in life expectancy, depending on stage of COPD: stage 1: 0.3 years. stage 2: 2.2 years. stage 3 or 4: 5.8 years.

What is denial stage?

The five stages, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance are a part of the framework that makes up our learning to live with the one we lost. They are tools to help us frame and identify what we may be feeling. But they are not stops on some linear timeline in grief.

What is trophozoite stage?

A trophozoite (G. trope, nourishment + zoon, animal) is the activated, feeding stage in the life cycle of certain protozoan parasites such as in the malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum and those of the Giardia group. (The opposite of the trophozoite state is the thick-walled cyst form).

Is Stage 1 lymphoma curable?

Hodgkin's disease is considered one of the most treatable forms of cancer if found early. Stage of disease– Stage I or II can offer good prognosis, though later stages may be highly treatable as well. No lymphoma outside of lymph nodes, or lymphoma in only one area outside of lymph nodes.

What is considered puppy stage?

Smaller breeds generally reach maturity somewhere around 12 months of age, whereas large and giant breed puppies may be anywhere between 18 and 24 months old before they can be considered 'adult'. The first stage in puppy development covers the first 3 weeks of your puppy's life.

Why is it called a dog end?

Dog End is actually derived from "docked end" which has two potential origins in the UK: 1) Docked end meaning "shortened" end. 2) When a cigarette is kept for another smoke after having first been "docked" If this is answers your question, please accept so I can receive credit for the answer.

Is there an end to Stardew Valley?

Stardew Valley does not abruptly end like some Harvest Moon games, where you are forced to try again if you want a better ending (and lose all your progress in some games). Thankfully, you can keep playing after the 'end' of Stardew Valley and even retry for a better 'score'.

Is Greyhound Racing ending in Florida?

Florida votes to end greyhound racing; fate uncertain for more than 6,000 dogs. NAPLES, Florida – Florida voters on Tuesday approved Amendment 13, ending live greyhound racing in the state by 2021.

Is Stage 1 melanoma serious?

Find out what stage 1 melanoma skin cancer means and about treatment options. It is only in the skin and there is no sign that it has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. Stage 1 can be divided into 1A and 1B.

What is the sensorimotor stage?

SENSORIMOTOR STAGE. The sensorimotor stage is the first of the four stages Piaget uses to definecognitive development. Piaget designated the first two years of an infants lifeas the sensorimotor stage. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationships betweentheir bodies and the environment.

Is Stage 2 cancer curable?

Early stage cancers of the throat are small, localized, and highly curable when treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Early stage disease includes stage I, II, and some stage III cancers. Stage I cancer is no more than 2 centimeters in size (about 1 inch) and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area.

Is end ice safe for dogs?

The short answer is no, pet-safe ice melts are not completely safe. “The ASPCA's Animal Poison Control Center classifies all ice melt products as being chemical irritants that can cause gastrointestinal signs, like vomiting and diarrhea, and topical irritation to the paw pads and skin,” she explains.

Is there an ending to Stardew Valley?

Stardew Valley does not abruptly end like some Harvest Moon games, where you are forced to try again if you want a better ending (and lose all your progress in some games). Thankfully, you can keep playing after the 'end' of Stardew Valley and even retry for a better 'score'.

What is a double ended leash?

A double-ended leash has one leash with two clips on each end plus a handle in the middle. Basically, you're attaching one end of the leash to your dog's flat collar and the other clip to the front of your dog's harness while you hold the handle.

Why is my period not ending?

This imbalance can cause the uterine lining to become too thick. Then, when you get your period, it can take forever for the lining to shed. TELL YOUR DOCTOR IF you've had periods that last more than seven days — or several days longer than is normal for you.

Is Stage 4 always terminal?

Stage 4 is the final mesothelioma stage. Pleural mesothelioma cancer cells may have spread into the chest wall, bones, lining of the heart, abdomen, liver, opposite lung or lymph nodes in the chest. This stage is often terminal. The median life expectancy for stage 4 mesothelioma is about 12 months.

Is Stage 2 cancer serious?

Stage 1 – Localized cancer that has spread into nearby tissues. It has not yet spread to lymph nodes or other areas. Stage 2 – Cancer has spread to a regional area or into nearby tissues or lymph nodes. Stage 3 – More advanced regional spread than Stage 2.

How long is end of tenancy cleaning?

A thorough post-lease cleanup can take anywhere from 3 to 6 hours. It all depends on the size of the job. Most jobs do not require a deposit, but for some tenants might be required to deposit 10% in advance. How much can a landlord charge for cleaning?

What is the final stage of dementia?

How Long Does End-Stage Dementia Last. End-stage, or late-stage, dementia may last from several weeks to several years. As the disease advances, your loved one's abilities become severely limited and their needs increase.

Is Stage 2 testicular cancer curable?

Patients with Stage II testicular seminoma have a curable cancer that involves the testis and the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Cancer treatment may consist of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatment techniques.

Is Stage 4 kidney disease serious?

It is likely someone with stage 4 CKD will need dialysis or a kidney transplant in the near future. In stage 4, a person is likely to develop complications of kidney disease such as high blood pressure, anemia (a shortage of red blood cells), bone disease, heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases.

What is the formal operational stage?

The formal operational stage begins at approximately age twelve and lasts into adulthood. As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner by manipulate ideas in their head, without any dependence on concrete manipulation (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958).

What is stage 4 heart failure?

Heart failure is a chronic long-term condition that gets worse with time. There are 4 stages of heart failure (Stage A, B, C and D). As the condition gets worse, your heart muscle pumps less blood to your organs, and you move toward the next stage of heart failure.

How long is German shepherd puppy stage?

Around 5 to 6 months of age, the German shepherd puppy should enter the adolescent stage, which coincides with the hormonal changes associate with sexual maturity. This stage is quite long, estimated to last until the youngster reaches 2 years of age in a breed as large as the German shepherd.

Is Stage 3 testicular cancer curable?

Patients with stage III non-seminoma have cancer that has spread outside the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The majority of patients are cured with standard multi-agent chemotherapy. The following is a general overview of the treatment of stage III testicular non-seminoma.

Is stage 4 testicular cancer curable?

Stage I seminomas. These cancers can be cured in nearly all patients. If the cancer has spread, you may get treatments like radiation or chemo. The cancer will come back in about 15% to 20% of patients, most often as spread to lymph nodes , but if it does, radiation or chemo can still usually cure the cancer.

Is late stage Lyme disease fatal?

Most cases of Lyme disease are successfully treated with a few weeks of antibiotics. Using antibiotics for a very long time (months or years) does not offer superior results and in fact can be dangerous, because it can cause potentially fatal complications.

What age is puppy stage over?

Most puppies will go through a very trying stage when they turn about 5 months of age. Dogs often don't out grow that teenager phase for 2-3 years depending upon the breed. Many experts agree that the most challenging time is between the ages of 8 months to about 18 months.

How long can you live with stage D heart failure?

Although there have been recent improvements in congestive heart failure treatment, researchers say the prognosis for people with the disease is still bleak, with about 50% having an average life expectancy of less than five years. For those with advanced forms of heart failure, nearly 90% die within one year.

What ends with Z?

4 Letter Words buzz. chez. chiz. ditz. fizz. friz. futz. fuzz.

Is Stage 3 kidney disease serious?

Stage 3 of Chronic Kidney Disease. A person with stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) has moderate kidney damage. This stage is broken up into two: a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for Stage 3A is 45-59 mL/min and a decrease in GFR for Stage 3B is 30-44 mL/min.

How long is the puppy stage?

Most puppies will go through a very trying stage when they turn about 5 months of age. Dogs often don't out grow that teenager phase for 2-3 years depending upon the breed. Many experts agree that the most challenging time is between the ages of 8 months to about 18 months.

What is the active stage of dying?

There are two phases which arise prior to the actual time of death: the "pre-active phase of dying," and the "active phase of dying." On average, the preactive phase of dying may last approximately two weeks, while on average, the active phase of dying lasts about three days.

Is Canidae all life stages Grain Free?

Canidae All Life Stages is a plant-based dry dog food using a moderate amount of named meat meals as its main sources of animal protein, thus earning the brand 3.5 stars. Those looking for a better kibble from the same company may wish to check out our review of Canidae Grain Free Dry Dog Food.

Is Stage 4 cancer always terminal?

Stage 4 is the final mesothelioma stage. Pleural mesothelioma cancer cells may have spread into the chest wall, bones, lining of the heart, abdomen, liver, opposite lung or lymph nodes in the chest. This stage is often terminal. The median life expectancy for stage 4 mesothelioma is about 12 months.

How long is the infatuation stage?

How long does infatuation last? This phase usually lasts from one to six months, but can last as long as two years, or as short as two days.

Is Stage 2 prostate cancer curable?

Patients with stage II prostate cancer are curable and have a number of treatment options, including surgical removal of the cancer with radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy with brachytherapy or External Beam Radiation (EBRT) or active surveillance without immediate treatment.

What stage of Alzheimer's is Sundowning?

A common symptom of Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia, sundowning involves an increase in symptoms of agitation and confusion, which occur during the early evening hours or late afternoon hours.

What is stage 3 Lyme disease?

Stage 3: Late disseminated Lyme disease. Late disseminated Lyme disease occurs when the infection hasn't been treated in stages 1 and 2. Stage 3 can occur weeks, months, or years after the tick bite. This stage is characterized by: brain disorders (encephalopathy) involving memory, mood, and sleep.

Is Stage 4 squamous cell carcinoma curable?

Small squamous cell cancers can usually be cured with these treatments. In rare cases, squamous cell cancers can spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. If this happens, treatments such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy may be needed.

Is late stage Lyme disease curable?

Lyme disease can remain dormant for weeks, months or even years. When symptoms do eventually develop, they can be severe and patients often need aggressive treatment. In addition to intravenous antibiotics, patients being treated for late-stage Lyme disease, often receive supportive therapies.

How long is the puppy teething stage?

Teething: Between approximately 4 months to 7 months of age, puppies start to break in their new adult teeth. Just like with babies, there is a certain discomfort associated with these new teeth coming in. This is the stage when puppy chewing is in full force.

Is any Stage 4 cancer curable?

In quite a few cancers, stage 4 means the cancer has spread (metastasised) to another part of the body to form secondary cancers (metastases). As a general rule cancers that have spread are difficult to treat and are unlikely to be cured in the long term, although treatment can help to shrink or control them.

What age is the puppy stage over?

Most puppies will go through a very trying stage when they turn about 5 months of age. Dogs often don't out grow that teenager phase for 2-3 years depending upon the breed. Many experts agree that the most challenging time is between the ages of 8 months to about 18 months.

Is Stage 1 or 4 cancer worse?

Stage 0 – Cancer cells that are still in the location where they started and have not spread. Stage 1 – Localized cancer that has spread into nearby tissues. It has not yet spread to lymph nodes or other areas. Stage 4 – Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

What is pre active stage of dying?

There are two phases which arise prior to the actual time of death: the "pre-active phase of dying," and the "active phase of dying." On average, the preactive phase of dying may last approximately two weeks, while on average, the active phase of dying lasts about three days.

Is Stage 4 kidney disease curable?

Stage 4 kidney disease life expectancy: While there's no cure for kidney disease, there are things you can do to help preserve kidney function and slow the progression of CKD. There are also treatments at stage 5, which is kidney failure, that can help people live well for decades.

What is the puppy love stage?

Puppy Love. Puppy love (infatuation) is the first kind of romantic love we feel as teenagers. It is part of an immature relationship without the long term commitments that comes with mature relationships. The feelings that are commonly felt are very intense feelings of desire, passion and excitement.

How long is the puppy chewing stage?

Teething: Between approximately 4 months to 7 months of age, puppies start to break in their new adult teeth. Just like with babies, there is a certain discomfort associated with these new teeth coming in. This is the stage when puppy chewing is in full force. (Seems weird, I know.

What is a Stage 4 bedsore?

Stage 4 is the most severe stage of bedsores. At this stage, the wound has deteriorated tissues all the way down to the bone. These bedsores are dangerous and can destroy muscle, bone, tendons, and joints. Bedsores are usually caused by prolonged pressure on one area of the body or excessive friction.

How long is a dogs puppy stage?

Most puppies will go through a very trying stage when they turn about 5 months of age. Dogs often don't out grow that teenager phase for 2-3 years depending upon the breed. Many experts agree that the most challenging time is between the ages of 8 months to about 18 months.

How does the MEG end?

The ending of The Meg explained. The Meg has swum up from the depths to chomp on theater screens everywhere after a long voyage out of prehistory. Based on Steve Alten's 1997 book Meg: A Novel of Deep Terror, the movie has been 20 years in the making, splashing fruitlessly in development hell at multiple studios.

What words end with X?

9-letter words that end in x metroplex. multiplex. letterbox. heterodox. neocortex. tinderbox. strongbox. executrix.

What words end in ex?

5-letter words that end in ex index. annex. latex. telex. codex. culex. silex. murex.

What words end in Dex?

5-letter words that end in dex index. codex. fedex. videx. medex. redex. lidex. apdex.

Does rdr2 have multiple endings?

In total, Red Dead Redemption 2 has four distinct endings. Three of those endings are easy to come by, based entirely on a choice you make towards the end of the game.

What is a death rattle at the end of life?

Terminal respiratory secretions, commonly known as a “death rattle,” occur when mucous and saliva build up in the patient's throat. As the patient becomes weaker and/or loses consciousness, they can lose the ability to clear their throat or swallow.

How do you know your dog is end of life?

The signs dogs give us when it's time to say goodbye. 1) Prolonged Lethargy/Disinterest. This is the most common sign that the dying process has begun. 2) Stops Eating/Drinking. You know something is wrong when your dog refuses food. 3) Loss of Coordination. 4) Incontinence. 5) Labored Breathing. 6) Seeking Comfort.

How many scovilles is the end hot sauce?

The End. This sauce sits at 6 million Scoville units making it an insanely spicy sauce. In fact, the only way to make it this hot is by using extracted capsaicin, the element that makes us feel the burn. The End uses habaneros for flavor and the extract for the heat.

What is an example of a open ended question?

An open-ended question is a question that cannot be answered with a "yes" or "no" response, or with a static response. Examples of open-ended questions: Tell me about your relationship with your supervisor.

What word ends in F?

10-letter words that end in f waterproof. soundproof. cloverleaf. stroganoff. childproof. flameproof. shockproof. hippogriff.

Is there anything at the end of Meg?

The Meg does not have a post-credit scene, leaving its ending definitive and unchangeable. Alten has spent over twenty years writing Meg sequel books about Jonas Taylor (Jason Statham) and his family's encounters with terrifying creatures of the deep.

Is Failing a college class the end of the world?

Failing a class is not the end of the world, or even of your college experience. It doesn't mean you're stupid, or that you chose the wrong major and won't be able to cut it in the real world. It simply means that you have something to improve on and a goal to work toward in your education.

What is the end of a bone called?

They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate.

Why is the end of my dog's tail bald?

Skin infections from other causes can also affect the tail. Some hormonal disturbances such as hypothyroidism (decreased levels of thyroid hormone in the dog's blood) can manifest as hair loss at the tip of the tail. If your dog's tail hair is thinning or falling out and leaving bald patches, be sure to ask your vet.

Why is the end of my dog's tongue black?

If you notice anything of concern in your dog's mouth, you should have your vet take a look. There's also a condition called cyanosis in which the tongue and gums turn a blue or purplish color as a result of poorly oxygenated blood. Causes for cyanosis are quite serious and include heart and respiratory diseases.

How do you know when your period is ending?

When you are keeping track of your period on the calendar, you want to note the first day that you see blood and the last. At the beginning and the end, your period could look more like discolored discharge ranging from pink to brown than the very red blood that you see on the heavier days of bleeding.

Why is my dog leaking from her back end?

When the anal glands are full, they cause some swelling and/or discomfort for your dog. This can cause your dog to focus on that area and many dogs will lick an area that is uncomfortable. Another reason why anal gland problems could cause excessive licking is that the anal glands may be leaking.

What is the irony at the end of Animal Farm?

The situational irony in the piece is that the animals took over the farm so they could run it themselves. They didn't like the way they were being treated by the humans, but in the end they end up exactly like them.

Is End Ice Ice Melt safe for pets?

The short answer is no, pet-safe ice melts are not completely safe. “The ASPCA's Animal Poison Control Center classifies all ice melt products as being chemical irritants that can cause gastrointestinal signs, like vomiting and diarrhea, and topical irritation to the paw pads and skin,” she explains.

How does Animal Farm End?

By the end of Animal Farm, pigs are walking on two legs, Seven Commandments have become one, and the pigs insist to the other humans that all they wanted all along was to "to live at peace and in normal business relations" (10.27). No wonder the animals can't tell the pigs and humans apart.

What words end with IX?

8-letter words that end in ix appendix. crucifix. intermix. aviatrix. cicatrix. transfix. coturnix. mirepoix.

What age does menopause end?

Menopause is a stage in life when a woman stops having her monthly period. It is a normal part of aging and marks the end of a woman's reproductive years. Menopause typically occurs in a woman's late 40s to early 50s. However, women who have their ovaries surgically removed undergo "sudden" menopause.

How does Uncharted 4 end?

I mean, the game is called A Thief's End after all, and much of the time in popular fiction, an action hero has their tale end by heroically sacrificing themselves for one reason or another. Uncharted 4 doesn't kill Nathan Drake. Instead, they give him an ending so peaceful, it's almost unheard of in video games.

Where does the heliosphere end?

The heliopause is the final known boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar space that is filled with material, especially plasma, not from the Earth's own star, the Sun, but from other stars.