Is Q fever contagious?

What is Rubella? (Contagious Viral Rash)

Best Answer

Q fever is one of the most contagious diseases known and is easily spread from infected animals to humans.

As few as one or two bacteria can cause infection.

However, human-to-human transmission is rare.

Isolation of an infected human is unnecessary.

Influenza (Flu)

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Is Q fever dangerous?

Q fever is usually a mild disease with flu-like symptoms. Many people have no symptoms at all. In a small percentage of people, the infection can resurface years later. This more deadly form of Q fever can damage your heart, liver, brain and lungs.

How is Q fever spread?

Infection of humans usually occurs by inhalation of the bacteria in air carrying dust contaminated by dried placental material, birth fluids, urine or faeces of infected herd animals. Contaminated clothing, wool, hides or straw may also be a source of infection. Person-to-person spread is extremely unlikely.

Is Q fever vaccine live?

​Q fever is an infection spread to humans from animals, mainly cattle, sheep and goats. It can cause a severe flu-like illness and long-term health problems. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection and is recommended for those who work, live in or visit high risk environments.

Infectious Diseases: Common cold or the flu?

Is Q fever reportable?

The incidence of Q fever is unknown because in many countries it is not a reportable disease. Researchers believe that the infection is underreported.

How is Q fever diagnosed?

The diagnosis of Q fever relies mainly upon serology, the most commonly used method being the immunofluorescence assay. Serological testing for Q fever should always be done for a patient with a febrile illness and negative blood cultures.

Is Q fever in Tasmania?

Tasmania records first Q fever case. Tasmania has recorded its first case of Q fever. Symptoms include sudden fever, headaches, weight loss, fatigue and aching muscles. The Health and Human Services Minister David Llewellyn says Q fever is contracted from infected cattle, sheep and goats which show no symptoms.

What is Q fever endocarditis?

Q fever results from infection with Coxiella burnetii, a Proteobacteria that is mostly spread through aerosol transmission from infected animals and is found in most countries throughout the world. This topic reviews the diagnosis and treatment of patients with endocarditis associated with persistent Q fever infection.

Who discovered Q fever?

The pathogen of Q fever was discovered in 1937, when Frank Macfarlane Burnet and Mavis Freeman isolated the bacterium from one of Derrick's patients. It was originally identified as a species of Rickettsia. H.R.

What is the difference between a viral and bacterial infection?

Do kangaroos carry Q fever?

Q fever is an infection caused by Coxiella burnetii, a type of bacterium found worldwide except New Zealand. The infection is almost always related to direct or indirect contact with animals such as cattle, sheep or goats, although a wide range of animals including cats, dogs and kangaroos may carry the infection.

Is a fever contagious?

Viruses, with or without a fever, tend to be contagious. These droplets may contain virus even before one has developed a fever. Some examples of contagious illnesses that can be spread before a fever develop include: Flu: Contagious 1 day before symptoms start, until 5-7 days after.

Is Q fever a notifiable disease?

Q fever infection is a notifiable infectious disease in Western Australia. See notifiable communicable disease case definitions (Word 1.29MB). Notifications should be made using the communicable disease notification form for metropolitan residents (PDF 209KB) or regional residents (PDF 208KB).

Where is Q fever mostly found?

Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii.

Is Q fever a rickettsial disease?

Q fever is an acute or chronic disease caused by the rickettsial-like bacillus Coxiella burnetii. Acute disease causes sudden onset of fever, headache, malaise, and interstitial pneumonitis.

A Test in Focus: Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever), Molecular Detection, PCR

Is there a vaccine for Q fever?

A vaccine for Q fever has been developed and has successfully protected humans in Australia. However, this vaccine is not commercially available in the United States.

Is Q fever a reportable disease?

Q fever was first recognized as a human disease in Australia in 1935 and in the United States in the early 1940s. The “Q” stands for “query” and was applied at a time when the cause was unknown. Q fever is caused by infection with the bacteria Coxiella burnetii.

What is Q fever in Australia?

The organism, Coxiella burnetii, that causes Q Fever in humans can exist in a variety of domestic and wild animals without the animal displaying apparent signs of infection. In Australia C. burnetii is maintained in the wild by bush animals such as kangaroos, bandicoots and rodents and their attendant ticks.

What does Q fever do?

Q fever, also called query fever, is a bacterial infection caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria are most commonly found in cattle, sheep, and goats around the world. Humans typically get Q fever when they breathe in dust that was contaminated by infected animals.

What does Q fever stand for?

Q fever is a bacterial infection that can cause a severe flu-like illness. For some people, Q fever can affect their health and ability to work for many years. The bacteria are spread from animals, mainly cattle, sheep and goats. Even people who do not have contact with animals may be infected.

What animals carry Q fever?

Sheep, goats and cattle are most likely to get Q fever. Other animals that can get the disease include dogs, cats, rabbits, horses, pigs, camels, buf- falo, rodents, and some birds.

Can Q fever be cured?

Q fever is treated with the antibiotic doxycycline. For acute infections, antibiotic treatment lasts two to three weeks. People who have chronic Q fever usually must take a combination of antibiotics for at least 18 months.

How can I prevent Q fever?

Reduce your risk of getting Q fever by avoiding contact with animals, especially while animals are giving birth. Animals can be infected with Coxiella burnetii and appear healthy. Do not consume raw milk or raw milk products.

Can animals be vaccinated against Q fever?

A vaccine is available to help protect people at risk against Q fever. These tests are necessary, as a person who has already had Q fever can develop severe side effects if they are vaccinated.

Are fevers contagious?

No matter the illness, keep your child home if she has a fever. It may seem harmless enough, but assume any fever is a symptom of a contagious condition. Viruses that cause fevers are contagious as long as the fever is above a 100.4 degrees F. reading rectally.

Is fever contagious from person to person?

Viruses, with or without a fever, tend to be contagious. They can be spread in many ways - commonly, they are spread through droplets of saliva expelled while talking, coughing or sneezing. These droplets may contain virus even before one has developed a fever.

How long does Q fever vaccination last?

However, your body does take several weeks after vaccination to fully develop this protection against Q fever. Protection by vaccination requires one dose of Q-VAX® Vaccine. Protection lasts for many years. You must not be given Q-VAX® Vaccine more than once.

How do you get Q fever?

Q fever is passed on to humans through: contact with animal faeces, urine or birth products. breathing in dust from infected premises. contact with contaminated wool or hides, or presence during slaughtering. Consumption of unpasteurised 'raw' milk. Q fever is not normally transmitted person-to-person.

How do animals get Q fever?

Q fever is caused by a rickettsia (Coxiella burnetii), which is a microscopic (tiny) organism. Many kinds of wild and domestic animals and humans can get this disease. Infected animals spread Q fever naturally by direct contact, through aerosols (bacteria suspended in the air), or through their milk.

Is Valley Fever contagious in dogs?

The disease is contracted by inhaling fungal spores. The disease cannot be directly transmitted from person to person, nor can it be transmitted from people to animals. In other words, an animal with valley fever is not contagious to other pets or your family members.

Can you get Q fever from eating meat?

There is no evidence that people can develop Q fever from eating meat or blubber infected with Coxiella, but other bacteria and parasites (such as Salmonella, Trichinella, or Toxoplasma) that might be found in raw meat can make people sick, so it is important to cook meat to the proper temperature.

How long does it take to get over Q fever?

Many infected people have no or few symptoms. People who do become sick often have a severe flu-like illness. Symptoms begin about 2-3 weeks after coming into contact with the bacteria and typically include: high fevers and chills.

What are the symptoms of Q fever in animals?

Symptoms of Q fever include fever, chills, night sweats, headache, fatigue and chest pains. Pneumonia (lung infection) and hepatitis (inflamma- tion of the liver) can occur in serious cases.

How can Q fever be prevented in animals?

Reduce your risk of getting Q fever by avoiding contact with animals, especially while animals are giving birth. Animals can be infected with Coxiella burnetii and appear healthy. Do not consume raw milk or raw milk products.

Is tick fever contagious from dog to dog?

People and pets get the same tick-transmitted diseases. These diseases are not directly contagious between humans and animals (you won't catch Lyme disease from an infected dog), but we are all exposed to the same ticks outdoors.

How long are you contagious with a fever?

The contagious period for the flu begins about 1 day before symptoms start and can last as long as 5-7 days from when you first felt sick. You're generally contagious with a cold 1-2 days before your symptoms start, and you could be contagious as long as your symptoms are present—in rare cases, up to 2 weeks.

What frat is Q dog?

Omega Psi Phi (ΩΨΦ) is an international fraternity with over 750 undergraduate and graduate chapters. The fraternity was founded on November 17, 1911 by three Howard University juniors, Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman, and their faculty adviser, Dr. Ernest Everett Just.

What is sub q fluids?

Subcutaneous Fluid Therapy. Subcutaneous fluids (also known as sub-Q's or Lactated Ringer's solution) are fluids that are administered through a needle which is inserted under the cat's skin. Each bag contains 1000 ml. CRF cats may be able to live for several additional years with sub-Q fluids and the proper diet.

What is sub q fluids for dogs?

Subcutaneous fluid administration for dogs is the act of injecting a solution of sterile fluids directly underneath the canine's skin.

Is gastroenteritis contagious?

You can be contagious from a few days up to two weeks or more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). The contagious period — the time during which a sick person can give the illness to others — differs slightly for each virus.

Is IBD contagious?

The exact causes are unknown. Some researchers think the disease is caused by a germ or by an immune system problem. You don't have to worry about your family members catching the disease from you, because it isn't contagious. However, inflammatory bowel disease does seem to run in families.

Is kennel cough contagious?

Infectious tracheobronchitis, commonly known as kennel cough, is a canine respiratory infection caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza virus. Kennel cough is VERY contagious. It is named kennel cough because it can quickly spread through a kennel and infect every dog.

Is Canine Hepatitis contagious?

Infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) or hepatitis contagious canis (HCC), formerly known as “epizootic fox encephalitis,” is caused by canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1).

How contagious is thrush?

While oral thrush in adults is not considered contagious, thrush can be passed back and forth from mother to infant during breast-feeding. Even though oral thrush in adults is not considered contagious, the yeast fungus can be spread through kissing. However, a yeast infection in itself may or may not occur.

Is puppy mange contagious?

No, demodectic mange is not contagious to other animals or humans. Demodex mites are transmitted to puppies from their mother during the first few days of life. Since the mite is found on virtually all dogs, exposure of a normal dog to one with demodectic mange is not dangerous.

Is aplastic anemia contagious?

Aplastic anemia can be caused by exposure to certain chemicals, drugs, radiation, infection, immune disease; in about half the cases, a definitive cause is unknown. It is not a familial line hereditary condition, nor is it contagious.

Is Parvo contagious?

Canine parvovirus (CPV, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs. CPV2 is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their feces. Vaccines can prevent this infection, but mortality can reach 91% in untreated cases.

Why is yawning contagious?

Contagious yawning is triggered involuntarily when we observe another person yawn -- it is a common form of echophenomena -- the automatic imitation of another's words (echolalia) or actions (echopraxia). And it's not just humans who have a propensity for contagious yawning -- chimpanzees and dogs do it too.

Is Pyometra contagious?

Pyometra refers to a purulent (pus-filled) infection in the uterus. It occurs in older intact female dogs, but can also occur in unspayed dogs of any age. Left untreated, the infection can spread systemically and is potentially fatal.

Is Whitlow contagious?

Herpetic whitlow is caused by infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Infections with HSV are very contagious and are easily spread by direct contact with infected skin lesions. HSV-1 infections usually occur around the mouth, lips, nose, or face, while HSV-2 infections usually involve the genitals or buttocks.

Is my dog contagious?

It is very contagious and your dog can become infected if it comes into contact with an infected dog. Dogs with kennel cough may not seem ill in the early stages of the disease but they can still infect other dogs. Most commonly, dogs with kennel cough will have a snotty nose and a dry, hacking cough.

How contagious is brucellosis?

According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), brucellosis is only weakly contagious because person-to-person spread of brucellosis is rare. Brucellosis is contagious as long as living bacteria are present in domestic and wild animals and/or their secretions, including milk products.

Is eczema contagious sexually?

Is eczema contagious? However, if the raw, irritated skin of eczema becomes infected, the infecting agent may be contagious. The exact cause of atopic dermatitis is not known, but because it often occurs in family members, it is felt that a person's inherited genes may play a role in its development.

Is Discospondylitis contagious?

Infection occurs when a bacteria or fungus spreads to the disc space through the bloodstream from some other area in the body, such as the urinary tract, skin, heart valves, or mouth. Brucellosis is also contagious to humans. Clinical Signs. Affected dogs are often systemically ill and may have neurologic abnormalities

Is diabetes contagious sexually?

Diabetes is a disease that develops inside the body in some people who have the genes for it. Scientists haven't yet pinpointed exactly what causes diabetes, but they do know it's not contagious. The only way to completely avoid sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is abstinence.

Is poison ivy contagious?

A poison ivy rash itself isn't contagious — blister fluid doesn't contain urushiol and won't spread the rash. And you can't get poison ivy from another person unless you've touched urushiol that's still on that person or his or her clothing.

Is pannus contagious?

Pannus. Pannus is a chronic, immune-mediated, progressive, non painful, non-contagious inflammatory disease of the cornea. It is most common in German Shepherds, but greyhounds are also affected.

Is vestibular disease contagious?

Is it contagious to my other cats? There is no evidence that idiopathic feline vestibular disease can be transmitted between cats or other animals, including humans.

Is canine dermatitis contagious?

Non-contagious skin infections can result when normal bacterial or fungal skin flora is allowed to proliferate and cause skin disease. Common examples in dogs include Staphylococcus intermedius pyoderma, and Malassezia dermatitis caused by overgrowth of Malassezia pachydermatis.

Is Slapped cheek contagious?

Parvovirus is most contagious during the incubation period, around two weeks before the onset of the rash or other symptoms. Your child isn't usually contagious once the rash has appeared. No vaccine is currently available for slapped cheek disease.

Is heartworm contagious?

Heartworm disease is not contagious, meaning that a dog cannot catch the disease from being near an infected dog. Heartworm disease is only spread through the bite of a mosquito. The number of worms living inside an infected dog is called the worm burden.

Is glaucoma contagious?

Glaucoma is not caused by an infection, so there is no risk that you might catch it from someone else. However, several people in the same family may have glaucoma due to a family predisposition to the disease. Glaucoma that is not treated, no matter what the form of the disease, may end in blindness.

Is puppy dermatitis contagious?

Yeast dermatitis is not contagious; your dog did not get this infection from another dog. Opportunistic yeast infections often recur unless the underlying allergy or skin condition is controlled. There are certain breeds thought to be genetically predisposed to developing yeast infections.

Is pyoderma Gangrenosum contagious?

Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare treatable cause of skin ulceration. It is not a type of gangrene. Pyoderma gangrenosum is not contagious and cannot be transferred from person to person.

Is Cherry eye contagious?

If your dog's conjunctivitis is viral, it is usually not contagious to you, but might be to other dogs, says Smith. If bacterial, it may be contagious to both humans and to other dogs. For non-contagious conjunctivis, your vet might recommend cold compresses, artificial tears or steroid eye drops.

Is norovirus contagious?

The virus can spread quickly in these types of facilities. People infected with norovirus are contagious from the moment they begin feeling ill to at least 3 days after recovery. Some people may be contagious for as long as 2 weeks after recovery.

Is canine influenza contagious?

Dogs infected with CIV are most contagious during the two- to four- day virus incubation period, when they shed the virus in their nasal secretions but do not show signs of illness. The virus is highly contagious and almost all dogs exposed to CIV will become infected.

Is puppy acne contagious?

Many people wonder if folliculitis is contagious. The condition itself isn't considered to be contagious; not between canines or to human beings. But, it's possible for a few conditions that are causing it to be transmittable to additional pets and humans, too.

Is animal cancer contagious?

Transmission of cancer between humans is rare. Contagious cancers are known to occur in dogs, Tasmanian devils, Syrian hamsters, and some marine bivalves including soft-shell clams. These cancers have a relatively stable genome as they are transmitted.

Is Gapeworm contagious?

As for gapeworm - it is not "contagious" - like being spread like a virus. Ingestion of eggs or larvae (or eating earthworms, etc.) is the usual mode of transmission, so it's possible for an entire flock to have gapeworm because they all ingested it.

Why is fear contagious?

Fear may be able to spread from person to person—just like a virus. Fear may be able to spread from person to person—just like a virus. Because as scientists have discovered, fear may actually be contagious.

Is perioral dermatitis contagious?

Perioral dermatitis (perry ORR ahl derm ah TY tiss) is a dry or bumpy rash that can occur around the mouth, the nose, and the eyes. Perioral dermatitis is not contagious (cannot be spread from person to person).

Is coccidiosis contagious?

Humans may first encounter coccidia when they acquire a puppy or kitten that is infected. Other than T. gondii, the infectious organisms are canine and feline-specific and are not contagious to humans, unlike the zoonotic diseases.

Is dog papilloma contagious?

Oral papillomas are caused by a virus, just like human skin warts. Oral papillomas occur relatively commonly in dogs, and usually affect dogs in puppyhood and as young adults. This virus is NOT contagious to people or to any other animals except dogs.

Is hydrocephalus contagious?

No, although some of the underlying causes are contagious.

Is human parvo contagious?

Parvovirus B19—which causes fifth disease—spreads through respiratory secretions, such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. You are most contagious when it seems like you have “just a fever and/or cold” and before you get the rash or joint pain and swelling.

Is canine distemper contagious?

Canine distemper is a very contagious and deadly disease caused by a virus. Dogs and ferrets as well as certain species of wildlife, such as raccoons, wolves, foxes, and skunks, are at risk. Although there is no cure for distemper, the most important fact to remember is that it is preventable through vaccination.

What is Rat Fever?

Specialty. Infectious disease. Rat-bite fever is an acute, febrile human illness caused by bacteria transmitted by rodents, in most cases, which is passed from rodent to human by the rodent's urine or mucous secretions. Not to be confused with Rat fever which is usually alternative name for Leptospirosis.

Is Rat fever curable?

Treatment of Rat-bite Fever. If you develop any of the signs and symptoms of RBF after coming in contact with rats or other rodents, immediately contact a health care provider. Antibiotics can be highly effective at curing the disease if treatment is started soon after you become sick.

Is Valley Fever deadly?

Valley fever is a disease caused by a fungus that gets into your body through your lungs. It can make you feel like you have a cold or the flu and may cause a rash. Most people get better without treatment. But if your body's natural defense system (immune system) is weak, valley fever can be deadly.

Is lungworm in dogs contagious?

Eucoleus aerophilus is primarily a parasite of foxes, but has also been found in dogs, cats and other carnivores. The others are parasites that infect dogs and other related members of the canid family. Dogs pick up a lungworm infection by swallowing infective stages of the parasitic lungworm.

Is rabies contagious between humans?

Rabies is mostly transmitted to humans, and between animals, through the saliva of infected animals. Transmission is generally through a bite from any infected animal or by intaking saliva by any means. Transmission between humans is extremely rare, although it can happen through organ transplants, or through bites.

Is flu contagious to dogs?

The virus is highly contagious and almost all dogs exposed to CIV will become infected. The majority (80%) of infected dogs develop flu-like illness. To reduce the spread of CIV, isolate dogs that are sick or showing signs of a respiratory illness, and isolate dogs known to have been exposed to an infected dog.

Is cancer contagious in dogs?

Rather, the malignant tumor cells from one dog are transferred to another. Canine transmissible venereal tumors are most commonly seen in sexually active dogs in tropical and subtropical climates. The disease is spread when dogs mate, and it can even be transmitted to other canine species, such as foxes and coyotes.

Is leukemia in dogs contagious?

History of Dogs Tracked Through Contagious Canine Cancer. Around 11,000 years ago, a dog became immortal. One of its cells started growing and dividing uncontrollably, giving rise to a tumour. And one of the cells from that tumour became contagious.

Is Gapeworm in chickens contagious?

As for gapeworm - it is not "contagious" - like being spread like a virus. Ingestion of eggs or larvae (or eating earthworms, etc.) is the usual mode of transmission, so it's possible for an entire flock to have gapeworm because they all ingested it.

How long is conjunctivitis contagious?

Bacterial pink eye is highly contagious and is typically treated with antibiotic eye drops. It can spread to others as soon as symptoms appear, and it remains contagious for as long as symptoms remain, or for about 24 hours after starting a course of antibiotics.

Is meningitis contagious in humans?

Viral meningitis: Meningitis caused by many viruses is usually contagious. Bacterial meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is usually contagious; some bacteria more highly contagious (such as Neisseria meningitidis in young adults and Streptococcus pneumoniae in all ages) than others.

Is Herpes in dogs contagious?

Feline herpes is very contagious and is a common problem wherever cats are housed in groups. Canine herpes is more of a reproductive problem than a respiratory one; in fact, most infected dogs do not appear to get sick at all or have mild conjunctivitis/upper respiratory symptoms.

Is tick fever curable?

Most Tick Fever cases can be treated at home, however if your dog is anaemic or is very weak, the vet may choose to keep him in hospital to make sure his treatment and recovery have the best chances of success. Most dogs make a full recovery from Tick Fever, however it is a very serious disease and can be fatal.

Is Dengue Fever deadly?

Dengue (pronounced: DEN-gee) fever is an infectious disease. It can cause high fevers, headaches, rashes, and pain throughout the body. Although dengue fever can be very painful, it's not usually fatal. Most people who get it start feeling better after several days and recover fully in a couple of weeks.

Is Valley Fever genetic?

The study will examine the immuno-genetic underpinnings of the respiratory infection caused by inhalation of fungal spores—known as Coccidioides—endemic to soils of the U.S. Southwest. “The gist of it is that people get different kinds of severity for Valley fever. Some have no problem.

How contagious is dog flu?

Dogs infected with CIV are most contagious during the two- to four- day virus incubation period, when they shed the virus in their nasal secretions but do not show signs of illness. The virus is highly contagious and almost all dogs exposed to CIV will become infected.

Is Pemphigus in dogs contagious?

Pemphigus foliaceus is a disease of the immune system and the skin. In fact, it is the most common immune- mediated skin disease in dogs and cats. Although pemphigus foliaceus can also occur in people, it is not contagious. Some pets with pemphi- gus foliaceus are itchy, but most are not.

Is glaucoma in dogs contagious?

If your dog's conjunctivitis is viral, it is usually not contagious to you, but might be to other dogs, says Smith. Make sure your dog walker has all of this information to protect all of the pups they walk. If bacterial, it may be contagious to both humans and to other dogs.

Is HGE contagious to humans?

HGE is not contagious, but about 10 percent of dogs have more than one episode during their lives. Treated early and aggressively, hemorrhagic gastroenteritis has a good prognosis.

Is laryngitis contagious in dogs?

Less frequent causes of laryngitis that are potentially contagious are bacterial, and rarely, fungal infection. other underlying medical problems (throat cancer, for example) that cause laryngitis are not considered to be contagious.

How long is Bordetella contagious?

Veterinarians recommend that any dog that is suspected of having kennel cough be isolated from other dogs for 14 days, however they are usually only contagious for the first 7-10 days of illness.

Is dog skin cancer contagious?

Human cancers aren't contagious, but dogs and other animals aren't so lucky. The cancer isn't triggered by a virus, the way Human papillomavirus can prompt cervical cancer in people. Instead, CTVT spreads between dogs by the transfer of cancerous cells themselves.

Is pyoderma contagious to humans?

Like pyoderma, staph is a bacterial infection. Fortunately, staph infections are not contagious to humans or other dogs. However, in rare cases, the bacteria that causes the infection has been transmitted.

Is blepharitis contagious in dogs?

If your dog's conjunctivitis is viral, it is usually not contagious to you, but might be to other dogs, says Smith. Make sure your dog walker has all of this information to protect all of the pups they walk. If bacterial, it may be contagious to both humans and to other dogs.

Is Dog gum disease contagious?

Research has shown that periodontal disease is caused by the inflammatory reaction to bacteria under the gums, so periodontal disease technically may not be contagious. However, the bacteria that cause the inflammatory reaction can be spread through saliva.