What animal feels pain?

Best Answer

Though it has been argued that most invertebrates do not feel pain, there is some evidence that invertebrates, especially the decapod crustaceans (e.g.

crabs and lobsters) and cephalopods (e.g.

octopuses), exhibit behavioural and physiological reactions indicating they may have the capacity for this experience.

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What animals can feel pain?

Though it has been argued that most invertebrates do not feel pain, there is some evidence that invertebrates, especially the decapod crustaceans (e.g. crabs and lobsters) and cephalopods (e.g. octopuses), exhibit behavioural and physiological reactions indicating they may have the capacity for this experience.

Does an animal feel pain when euthanized?

If she's very sick and already quiet or has trouble breathing she may not need it. The euthanasia medication most vets use is pentobarbital, a seizure medication. In large doses, it quickly renders the pet unconscious. Your pet isn't in pain.

Do animals feel pain when euthanized?

Many professionals believe that carnivorous animals, such as cats and dogs, do not “hide” their pain, rather pain simply doesn't bother them the same way it bothers humans. When discussing the decision to euthanize, we should be just as concerned about anxiety in our pet as we are about pain.

Do plants feel pain like animals?

Plants have no brain or central nervous system, which means they can't feel anything. But let's dive a bit deeper. Humans and animals perceive pain through sensory nerve cells. Even though plants don't have nervous systems, they can respond to stimuli.

Do animals feel pain when eaten alive?

Animals, in fact, actually do not bear the pain, as they usually die when they get eaten alive.

Do animals feel pain like we do?

Pain is a complex experience involving sensory and emotional components: it is not just about how it feels, but also how it makes you feel. We know that animals certainly feel physical pain, but what is less clear is whether this emotional suffering that we feel can be said to be true of animals.

Do humans feel more pain than animals?

And it is these unpleasant feelings that cause the suffering we humans associate with pain. We know that animals certainly feel physical pain, but what is less clear is whether this emotional suffering that we feel can be said to be true of animals.

Are there animals that don't feel pain?

Though it has been argued that most invertebrates do not feel pain, there is some evidence that invertebrates, especially the decapod crustaceans (e.g. crabs and lobsters) and cephalopods (e.g. octopuses), exhibit behavioural and physiological reactions indicating they may have the capacity for this experience.

Do animals feel pain during childbirth?

Depends entirely on the animals. In general, though, MOST species of animals don't scream while giving birth, even if they are in pain - such a vocalization would attract the wrong sort of attention. Humans experience more pain than most species because our offspring have such enormous heads.

Do animals feel pain when they are slaughtered?

Animals feel the pain of religious slaughter. Brain signals have shown that calves do appear to feel pain when slaughtered according to Jewish and Muslim religious law, strengthening the case for adapting the practices to make them more humane.

What is diabetic foot pain feel like?

It affects the feet and legs first, followed by the hands and arms. Signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are often worse at night, and may include: Numbness or reduced ability to feel pain or temperature changes. Tingling or burning sensation.

Do slugs feel pain?

But animals with simple nervous systems, like lobsters, snails and worms, do not have the ability to process emotional information and therefore do not experience suffering, say most researchers. But vertebrates with spines have much more advanced nervous systems and can feel real pain and suffering, Stevens explained.

Do turtles feel pain?

Turtles CAN feel things that come in contact with their shells because they have nerve endings there, but they can not feel pain as they do not have those types of nerve endings.

Do dogs feel pain?

Dogs and Pain. Dogs feel pain to a similar extent as humans and can handle similar intensities of it. As a result, dogs often cope with varying tiers of pain in ways that people do. If a pooch experiences a certain amount of pain, he might exhibit clear malaise similar to that of a human.

Do pigeons feel pain?

But that doesn't mean they don't hurt: "Reptiles, amphibians, and fish have the neuroanatomy necessary to perceive pain," according to the book Pain Management in Veterinary Practice. Birds have pain receptors, Bekoff says, and feel pain as mammals do.

Does grass feel pain?

Plants have no brain or central nervous system, which means they can't feel anything. But let's dive a bit deeper. Humans and animals perceive pain through sensory nerve cells. Even though plants don't have nervous systems, they can respond to stimuli.

Can amphibians feel pain?

Nervous connections to the telencephalon indicate that frogs may be able to perceive pain. In 2002, James Rose, from the University of Wyoming, published reviews arguing that fish cannot feel pain because they lack a neocortex in the brain.

Do lizards feel pain?

Pain Management in Reptiles. Unfortunately it is more often that we do not perceive that they are in pain because the signs they show are often subtle and unlike mammals. Many recent scientific studies have shown that reptiles have all of the necessary neurotransmitters and anatomy to feel pain.

What does chlamydia pain feel like?

Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, meaning that many people don't know they have it. Chlamydia symptoms can include pus-like yellow discharge; frequent or painful urination; spotting between periods or after sex; and/or rectal pain, bleeding, or discharge.

What does Ms leg pain feel like?

Neurogenic pain is the most common and distressing of the pain syndromes in MS. This pain is described as constant, boring, burning or tingling intensely. It often occurs in the legs. The pains associated with these can be aching, throbbing, stabbing, shooting, gnawing, tingling, tightness and numbness.

What does plantar fasciitis pain feel like?

When you have plantar fasciitis, you usually feel pain in the bottom of the heel or the arch of the foot. Some people describe the pain as feeling like a bruise or an ache. The pain tends to gradually go away once you begin walking around. This eventually becomes a bone and is called a heel spur.

What does pancreatitis pain feel like?

The symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are similar to those of acute pancreatitis. Patients frequently feel constant pain in the upper abdomen that radiates to the back. In some patients, the pain may be disabling. Other symptoms are diarrhea and weight loss caused by poor absorption (malabsorption) of food.

What does UTI pain feel like?

A burning feeling when you urinate. A frequent or intense urge to urinate, even though little comes out when you do. Pain or pressure in your back or lower abdomen.

What does Crohn's pain feel like?

Right or Middle Abdomen Pain. A pain that feels like cramps in the middle of the abdomen or the lower right quadrant is typical of the types of Crohn's disease known as ileocolitis and ileitis. People with ileitis may also find that their pain or discomfort appears within a few hours of eating a meal.

What does spinal tumor pain feel like?

Loss of bowel or bladder function. Difficulty walking, sometimes leading to falls. Back pain that's worse at night. Loss of sensation or muscle weakness, especially in your arms or legs.

Do rats feel pain?

Yes, of course rats feel pain. They're mammals, with a sensory system very much like ours. They're even sensitive to each others' pain. When scientists use rats in experiments, sometimes there's no pain involved, or only minimal pain.

Do Puppies feel pain?

Studies Reveal That Day-Old Puppies do Feel Pain. The immaturity at birth typical of altricial species has been linked to an immature and underdeveloped nervous system, causing people to believe that a newborn puppy is, consequently, not capable of feeling pain.

Do pitbulls feel pain?

Pit Bulls Do Not Feel Pain. Many breeders will tell you that a Pit Bull has a high pain tolerance, or simply does not feel pain. In fact, all breeds of dogs share the same nervous system.

Can plants feel pain?

Plants have no brain or central nervous system, which means they can't feel anything. But let's dive a bit deeper. Humans and animals perceive pain through sensory nerve cells. Even though plants don't have nervous systems, they can respond to stimuli.

Can alligators feel pain?

Alligators not only have little endurance, but they also don't really care to pursue their prey. This is the most sensitive area of the alligator's body, and the combination of pain and surprise should be enough to cause the alligator to release you. Occasionally, a bad-tempered alligator may not give up the fight.

Can spiders feel pain?

Generally insects do not feel pain like humans feel pain. However there is a physiological response related to painful stimuli in insects. So whether insects feel pain is a highly debatable topic in the research community, which is yet to be studied in detail.

Do birds feel pain?

Pain and Suffering in Birds - 14 July 2009. Chickens and turkeys - birds - experience pain, panic, fear and distress the same as other animals including humans. Birds, like mammals, he explains, have “a well developed sensory system to monitor very precisely external noxious or potentially noxious stimuli.”

Do Frogs feel pain?

Nervous connections to the telencephalon indicate that frogs may be able to perceive pain. In 2002, James Rose, from the University of Wyoming, published reviews arguing that fish cannot feel pain because they lack a neocortex in the brain.

Can dogs feel pain?

Dogs and Pain. Dogs feel pain to a similar extent as humans and can handle similar intensities of it. As a result, dogs often cope with varying tiers of pain in ways that people do. If a pooch experiences a certain amount of pain, he might exhibit clear malaise similar to that of a human.

Do snakes feel pain?

A snake feels no pain, but reacts mechanically to pain stimulus. It doesn't experience pain as we humans do. Yes, a snake does feel pain, just as we do. Some snakes are born without “feeding response”.

What do gas pains feel like?

Signs or symptoms of gas or gas pains include: Burping. Passing gas. Pain, cramps or a knotted feeling in your abdomen.

What does ovarian cyst pain feel like?

Most ovarian cysts are small and don't cause symptoms. If a cyst does cause symptoms, you may have pressure, bloating, swelling, or pain in the lower abdomen on the side of the cyst. This pain may be sharp or dull and may come and go. If a cyst ruptures, it can cause sudden, severe pain.

What does stomach ulcer pain feel like?

The most common symptom of peptic ulcers is abdominal pain. Stomach ulcer pain: Usually in the upper middle part of the abdomen, above the belly button (navel) and below the breastbone. Can feel like burning, or gnawing, and it may go through to the back.

What does gas pains feel like?

Signs or symptoms of gas or gas pains include: Burping. Passing gas. Pain, cramps or a knotted feeling in your abdomen.

What does lymphoma pain feel like?

Symptoms from lymphoma in the skin. Lymphomas of the skin may be seen or felt. They often appear as itchy, red or purple lumps or bumps under the skin.

Do vegetables feel pain?

Plants have no brain or central nervous system, which means they can't feel anything. But let's dive a bit deeper. Humans and animals perceive pain through sensory nerve cells. Even though plants don't have nervous systems, they can respond to stimuli.

Do plants feel pain?

Plants have no brain or central nervous system, which means they can't feel anything. But let's dive a bit deeper. Humans and animals perceive pain through sensory nerve cells. Even though plants don't have nervous systems, they can respond to stimuli.

Do mice feel pain?

Mice 'feel pain' just like humans. laboratory mice grimace when they feel pain much like humans, according to a controversial study into measuring painful discomfort in animals, published in the journal Nature Methods.

Do worms feel pain?

Worms and crayfish feel no pain - experts. Farstad said most invertebrates, including lobsters and crabs boiled alive, do not feel pain because, unlike mammals, they do not have a big brain to read the signals.

Can Jellyfish feel pain?

Since jellyfish lack a central nervous system through which afferent inputs are highly processed, they almost certainly don't feel pain. An interesting follow up to your question, is how do jellyfish respond to threats if they do not feel pain, because they have no brain?

Can fishes feel pain?

In the past 15 years, Braithwaite and other fish biologists around the world have produced substantial evidence that, just like mammals and birds, fish also experience conscious pain. “Fish do feel pain. It's likely different from what humans feel, but it is still a kind of pain.”

Can reptiles feel pain?

Some people still believe that reptiles can not perceive pain. Many recent scientific studies have shown that reptiles have all of the necessary neurotransmitters and anatomy to feel pain. It is likely that they have simply evolved to hide their pain to avoid predation in the wild.

Do rabbits feel pain?

We know that rabbits have the same neurophysiological mechanisms as humans to produce pain and therefore have the capacity to feel pain in the same manner as ourselves. Often, rabbits do not cry out or make sudden movements like humans, dogs or cats when painful areas are palpated.

Can silkworms feel pain?

Can silkworms feel pain? Earthworms have been found to produce endorphins, which does suggest a response of some sort to pain. But again, silkworms aren't actually worms, so the earthworm example may not be a particularly useful indicator.

Do cows feel pain?

For us, this is a very complex experience — associated with emotions like fear, panic, and stress, which we can communicate to others.” Animals can feel pain. A biologist explains how we know. So yes, cows do feel pain and they are conscious, sentient beings as are all mammals and several species of birds among others.

How do snakes feel pain?

Others have their heads nailed to a tree and their skins slowly peeled off. Because of their slow metabolisms, snakes remain conscious and able to feel pain and fear long after they are decapitated. Once the skin is limp, it is ripped from the snakes' bodies.

Can fish feel pain 2018?

Fish do not feel pain the way humans do, according to a team of neurobiologists, behavioral ecologists and fishery scientists. The researchers conclude that fish do not have the neuro-physiological capacity for a conscious awareness of pain.

Do worms feel pain 2018?

Worms and crayfish feel no pain - experts. Farstad said most invertebrates, including lobsters and crabs boiled alive, do not feel pain because, unlike mammals, they do not have a big brain to read the signals.

Do newborn puppies feel pain?

Studies Reveal That Day-Old Puppies do Feel Pain. The immaturity at birth typical of altricial species has been linked to an immature and underdeveloped nervous system, causing people to believe that a newborn puppy is, consequently, not capable of feeling pain.

Do aborted babies feel pain?

But many doctors reject those claims, saying a fetus's brain and nervous system are not developed at 20 weeks to feel pain. They cite a wide-ranging 2005 study that found a fetus was unlikely to feel pain until the third trimester of a pregnancy, or about 27 weeks.

Do plants feel pain PETA?

The simple answer is that, currently, no one is sure whether plants can feel pain. Studies show that plants can feel a touch as light as a caterpillar's footsteps. But pain, specifically, is a defense mechanism. If something hurts humans, we react instinctually to it—”fight or flight”—as do other animals.

Do head lice feel pain?

Head lice can be a pain in the-you-know-what. They can cause itching and loss of sleep. It's true that head lice thrive on human blood, but these little buggers aren't known to spread disease.

What does pain from the spleen feel like?

Symptoms you may experience with an enlarged spleen include: pressure or pain in the left upper part of your abdomen (near the stomach), feeling full without eating a large meal, or pain your left shoulder blade or shoulder area when taking a deep breath.

What does the pain of pancreatitis feel like?

Symptoms of acute pancreatitis: Upper abdominal pain that radiates into the back; it may be aggravated by eating, especially foods high in fat. Swollen and tender abdomen.

Can animals feel music?

Human music is completely incomprehensible to animals in the same sense as we react to it: at an emotional level. Most animals probably react to pitch, volume, rhythm, beat but as sounds not music. However, it seems that music that evokes emotion as with humans is possible but it will be species specific.

Do animals feel remorse?

While empathy and compassion may be common in animals, guilt may be a uniquely human emotion. A study published in the journal Behavioural Processes in 2009 found that dogs' guilty looks don't signal remorse. In the study, they told owners that their dogs had eaten a forbidden treat while the owners left the room.

Do animals feel rhythm?

Every animal tested seems to have the same ability humans have to perceive pitch -- high or low sounds. No one knows why only humans and some animals have developed the ability to synchronize with rhythm, the scientists agree.

Do animals feel embarrassment?

Scientists know that animals can feel anger, sadness, fear, empathy and happiness. When it comes to the more subtle social emotions, like embarrassment, some experts believe that dogs and cats are capable of feeling humiliation, although it may not be the same way we feel it.

Do animals feel fear?

Animals feel intense fear when they're threatened in any way, regardless of whether they're predators or prey. While all animals can be overwhelmed by terror, prey animals like cows, deer, horses, and rabbits spend a lot more time being scared than predators do.

Do animals feel pleasure?

In fact the enjoyment of sex among humans and among animals may be similar in that it's all experienced in very primitive parts of the brain. Not only do animals enjoy the deed, they also likely have orgasms, he said. Bonobos and possibly dolphins also pursue sex recreationally, Bekoff said.

How does a fish feel pain?

Fish do not feel pain the way humans do, according to a team of neurobiologists, behavioral ecologists and fishery scientists. The researchers conclude that fish do not have the neuro-physiological capacity for a conscious awareness of pain. The hook of a fishing lure is stuck in the upper jaw of this rainbow trout.

Do dogs feel pain after spaying?

After spaying, your dog is likely to experience some level of pain. Some dogs behave normally within hours of surgery. Many vets suggest giving pain medication after surgery and before a pain spiral begins to keep the dog comfortable and give her time to heal.

Where do you feel lung pain?

Also known as pleurisy, this condition is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the lungs and chest. You likely feel a sharp pain when you breathe, cough, or sneeze. The most common causes of pleuritic chest pain are bacterial or viral infections, pulmonary embolism, and pneumothorax.

Does liver pain feel like gas?

Liver pain is felt in the upper right area of the abdomen, just below the ribs. Usually, it is a dull, vague pain though it can sometimes be quite severe and may cause a backache. It is often confused with general abdominal pain, back pain or kidney pain, according to New Health Guide.

Do dogs feel pain during euthanasia?

Veterinarians are trained to make these experiences as painless and peaceful as possible. Realize that your dog may react to the sedative that is given before the euthanasia. Their eyes may start to jitter as they become very dizzy. After that final needle is given, you may notice your dog's breathing changes.

What does bone pain from cancer feel like?

Bone pain: Pain is the most common sign of bone cancer, and may become more noticeable as the tumor grows. Bone pain can cause a dull or deep ache in a bone or bone region (e.g., back, pelvis, legs, ribs, arms). Other symptoms: Unintended weight loss and fatigue that accompanies bone pain may be a sign of bone cancer.

Where do you feel liver pain?

Liver pain is felt in the upper right area of the abdomen, just below the ribs. Usually, it is a dull, vague pain though it can sometimes be quite severe and may cause a backache. Sometimes people perceive it as pain in the right shoulder.

Do dogs feel pain when in season?

One of them, for many intact female dogs, is crying. However, since the female dog heat cycle bears symptoms comparable to a woman's menstrual cycle in many ways, it is possible to conclude that during your dog's heat cycle she is uncomfortable and maybe even experiences cramping and mild amounts of pain.

Do dogs feel pain when euthanized?

Veterinarians are trained to make these experiences as painless and peaceful as possible. Realize that your dog may react to the sedative that is given before the euthanasia. Their eyes may start to jitter as they become very dizzy. Generally, they need to lay down or they will lose their balance.

Do pigs feel pain when slaughtered?

Animals feel the pain of religious slaughter. Brain signals have shown that calves do appear to feel pain when slaughtered according to Jewish and Muslim religious law, strengthening the case for adapting the practices to make them more humane.

Do dogs feel pain when in heat?

One of them, for many intact female dogs, is crying. However, since the female dog heat cycle bears symptoms comparable to a woman's menstrual cycle in many ways, it is possible to conclude that during your dog's heat cycle she is uncomfortable and maybe even experiences cramping and mild amounts of pain.

Do cows feel pain during birth?

Depends entirely on the animals. In general, though, MOST species of animals don't scream while giving birth, even if they are in pain - such a vocalization would attract the wrong sort of attention. Humans experience more pain than most species because our offspring have such enormous heads.

Do Frogs feel pain when touched?

Nervous connections to the telencephalon indicate that frogs may be able to perceive pain. In 2002, James Rose, from the University of Wyoming, published reviews arguing that fish cannot feel pain because they lack a neocortex in the brain.

Do dogs feel pain in their ears?

Last Updated November 21, 2013. Humans can opt against cosmetic surgery, but dogs aren't so lucky. We choose for them—and we often choose painful, unnecessary procedures such as ear-cropping and tail-docking. Dogs “talk” to their human companions and other dogs using their ears and tails.

Do dogs feel pain like we do?

Dogs and Pain. Dogs feel pain to a similar extent as humans and can handle similar intensities of it. As a result, dogs often cope with varying tiers of pain in ways that people do. If a pooch experiences a certain amount of pain, he might exhibit clear malaise similar to that of a human.

Do dogs feel pain when giving birth?

But while they may keep their pain more private, it's known that many animals show some signs of pain and distress. Labor times for other animals tend to be much shorter than for humans. It can take more than 24 hours for a woman to give birth, but dogs go through labor in about an hour.

Do dogs feel pain in their tails?

That's because the tail DOES have pain receptors, but they do not react the same when relaxed as when excited. By the way, just because a dog does not feel pain does not mean they cannot do damage. Many a dog has damaged their tail, split is open, or done other things to it while furiously wagging the tail.

Do fish and shellfish feel pain?

Can shellfish feel pain? Yes. Scientists have proved beyond a doubt that fish, lobsters, crabs, and other sea dwellers feel pain. Lobsters' bodies are covered with chemoreceptors so they are very sensitive to their environments.

Can dogs feel their owners pain?

Now, new research suggests that dogs really do respond uniquely to tears. But whether pets have empathy for human pain is less clear. Studies have shown that dogs are experts at human communication, but scientists haven't been able to show conclusively that dogs feel empathy or truly understand the pain of others.

Do chickens feel pain when killed?

More chickens are raised and killed for food than all other land animals combined. McDonald's alone kills hundreds of millions of chickens each year for its U.S. restaurants. But if more people knew that chickens are complex creatures who feel pain and distress, they might think twice before eating another nugget.

Do dogs feel pain like humans?

Dogs and Pain. Dogs feel pain to a similar extent as humans and can handle similar intensities of it. As a result, dogs often cope with varying tiers of pain in ways that people do. If a pooch experiences a certain amount of pain, he might exhibit clear malaise similar to that of a human.

Do female dogs feel pain when mating?

In perfect situations, all of this occurs without any pain or discomfort for your female dog. However sometimes there can be variances in mating tendencies, and this can have a direct impact on how your dog behaves. She might try to pull away from the male during the tie.

Do dogs feel pain in their whiskers?

Whiskers are a specialised form of hair, and as such, they do not have a nerve supply, so the act of cutting them will be no more painful than trimming nails. However they do have a rich nerve supply at their base, and this is likely to make them more sensitive than other hairs to being pulled or twisted.

Do dogs feel pain in their tail?

That's because the tail DOES have pain receptors, but they do not react the same when relaxed as when excited. By the way, just because a dog does not feel pain does not mean they cannot do damage. Many a dog has damaged their tail, split is open, or done other things to it while furiously wagging the tail.

Do dogs feel pain when teething?

Just like human babies, puppies feel pain and discomfort when their teeth are erupting. As a result, teething puppies tend to chew and gnaw at everything in order to relieve the teething pain and pressure in their gums.

Do dogs with DM feel pain?

DM, on its own, is not a painful disease. However, compensatory movements for a weak hind end can cause the dog to develop pain in other areas of his body such as his neck, shoulders, and front limbs.

Do fish feel pain when they die?

Fish do not feel pain the way humans do, according to a team of neurobiologists, behavioral ecologists and fishery scientists. The researchers conclude that fish do not have the neuro-physiological capacity for a conscious awareness of pain. The hook of a fishing lure is stuck in the upper jaw of this rainbow trout.

Can babies feel pain during an abortion?

But many doctors reject those claims, saying a fetus's brain and nervous system are not developed at 20 weeks to feel pain. They cite a wide-ranging 2005 study that found a fetus was unlikely to feel pain until the third trimester of a pregnancy, or about 27 weeks.

Does a dog feel pain during euthanasia?

If she's very sick and already quiet or has trouble breathing she may not need it. The euthanasia medication most vets use is pentobarbital, a seizure medication. In large doses, it quickly renders the pet unconscious. It shuts down her heart and brain functions usually within one or two minutes.

Do babies feel pain during birth?

Doctors now know that newly born babies probably feel pain. But exactly how much they feel during labor and delivery is still debatable. If pain does register with a baby, some experts liken it to a feeling of being gradually squeezed. "It's hard to say what a baby senses," says Dr. Auerbach.

Does a dog feel pain when euthanized?

If she's very sick and already quiet or has trouble breathing she may not need it. The euthanasia medication most vets use is pentobarbital, a seizure medication. In large doses, it quickly renders the pet unconscious. Your pet isn't in pain.

Do Puppies feel pain when teething?

When a puppy is teething, his gums and mouth hurt and he's going to do something, anything, to make it feel better. Most puppies begin chewing now. The chicken broth will get him interested in the ice cubes and the cold will help soothe his gums. A frozen food dispensing toy, such as a Kong, will also help.

Do dogs feel pain during their period?

However, since the female dog heat cycle bears symptoms comparable to a woman's menstrual cycle in many ways, it is possible to conclude that during your dog's heat cycle she is uncomfortable and maybe even experiences cramping and mild amounts of pain. Any of these issues can lead to vocalizations in our female dogs.

Do dogs feel pain in tail?

That's because the tail DOES have pain receptors, but they do not react the same when relaxed as when excited. By the way, just because a dog does not feel pain does not mean they cannot do damage. Many a dog has damaged their tail, split is open, or done other things to it while furiously wagging the tail.

Do dogs feel pain after neutering?

Truth: During a spay or neuter surgery, dogs and cats are fully anesthetized, so they feel no pain. Afterwards, most animals seem to experience some discomfort, but signs of discomfort disappear within a few days, and with pain management medication, pain may not be experienced at all.