What is an acceptable inbreeding coefficient?

How to calculate the inbreeding coefficient

Best Answer

Inbreeding, put simply, is the mating of related individuals – those individuals with common ancestors.

This is the probability that two copies of the same variant at a gene have been inherited from an ancestor common to both the sire and dam.

The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient.

Animal Breeding: How to Find Coefficient of Inbreeding

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Related Questions

What is an inbreeding coefficient?

The coefficient of inbreeding of an individual is the probability that two genes at any locus in an individual are identical by descent from the common ancestor(s) of the two parents.

What is a high inbreeding coefficient?

The coefficient of inbreeding of an individual is the probability that two genes at any locus in an individual are identical by descent from the common ancestor(s) of the two parents.

What is a good inbreeding coefficient?

The degree of inbreeding can be measured by using a Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI). This is the probability that two copies of the same variant at a gene have been inherited from an ancestor common to both the sire and dam. The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient.

How to calculate inbreeding coefficient

What is friction coefficient?

A coefficient of friction is a value that shows the relationship between the force of friction between two objects and the normal reaction between the objects that are involved. It is a scalar, meaning the direction of the force does not affect the physical quantity.

What is considered inbreeding?

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits.

What is an acceptable noise level in residential area?

As per the rules, the prescribed highest limit of noise levels for residential localities is 55 and 45 decibels (during the day and the night respectively), for silence zones the level is 50 and 40 decibels, respectively.

What causes inbreeding?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

Why is inbreeding dangerous?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

How to calculate inbreeding from a pedigree chart

Why is inbreeding bad?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

Is inbreeding in dogs bad?

Offspring from a mother-son mating would, therefore, have a 25% chance of inheriting two bad copies of the mutations that have been passed down to the son. This is a greater than 100-fold risk compared to an outbred dog! Inbreeding in dogs has real consequences.

Is inbreeding dogs illegal?

Is inbreeding dogs illegal. No it isn't its just not always a wise way to go when breeding animals. While potentially it may put all good characteristics doubled up into one puppy it also could line up negative characteristics from hidden recessive genes leading to smaller litter size and unhealthy puppies.

What is the coefficient of relatedness between half siblings?

Human relationships Degree of relationshipRelationshipCoefficient of relationship (r)23/4 siblings or sibling–cousins37.5% (2−2+2−3)2grandparent–grandchild25% (2−2)2half siblings25% (2−2)3aunt/uncle–nephew/niece25% (2⋅2−3)14 weitere Zeilen

Is hemophilia caused by inbreeding?

Hemophilia is caused by a mutation—likely spontaneous in Victoria's case—on the X chromosome and can be passed along the maternal line of families. It is also recessive and is more commonly exhibited in males, causing it to go undetected in many carriers, who may pass it on to future generations.

Population Genetics: Inbreeding Coefficient

Is inbreeding bad for dogs?

The coefficient of inbreeding is a really useful tool for anyone breeding dogs. Because scientists have now discovered that dogs with higher COIs are more likely to get sick. Specifically, they have shown that when the COI of any mating exceeds 5%, puppies are at increased risk from the adverse effects of inbreeding.

Why inbreeding dogs is bad?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

What deformities are caused by inbreeding?

When deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases.

What is the difference between line breeding and inbreeding?

In genetic terminology, inbreeding is the breeding of two animals who are related to each other. Exactly what the difference is between linebreeding and inbreeding tends to be defined differently for each species and often for each breed within the species.

Does inbreeding affect animals?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

What does inbreeding do to dogs?

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits.

What are the effects of inbreeding?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

Which is a disadvantage of inbreeding?

There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Despite all its disadvantages, inbreeding can also have a variety of advantages, such as reducing the recombination load, and allowing the expression of recessive advantageous phenotypes.

Does a landlord have to accept an emotional support animal?

Because landlords are not obliged to accept emotional support animals when processing your application in the same way they have to with service dogs, you may have to accept that some accommodation may be off limits to you if you do not have documentation or an ESA letter from a licensed therapist.

What restaurants accept EBT?

Restaurants that accept EBT include: Burger King. Carl's Jr. Church's Chicken. Del Taco. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Great Steaks. Jamba Juice.

What Mcdonalds accept EBT?

The states of Florida, California, Arizona and Michigan already allow select restaurants like Golden Corral, McDonald's, Subway, some Yum! properties and others to accept food stamps. But the new Yum! effort would potentially give their particular brands the ability to accept food stamps in all 50 states.

Why does inbreeding reduce fitness?

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression.

Where is EBT accepted?

Among the locations commonly approved to accept CalFresh EBT are: Markets and grocers — Most supermarkets, corner stores and other grocers accept CalFresh.

What stores accept snap?

Here's a list of some other stores that accept EBT cards. Target (general merchandise) Family Dollar (dollar stores) Costco and Sam's Club (membership) 7-Eleven (convenience) Wal-Mart, Roses, etc. ( large discount store) Aldi (value food)

Why does inbreeding depression occur?

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression.

Does inbreeding cause birth defects?

Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. The chances of such disorders are increased when the biological parents are more closely related.

How can inbreeding cause problems?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

Is euthanasia morally acceptable?

The person in favour of euthanasia argues that giving everybody the right to have a good death through euthanasia is acceptable as a universal principle, and that euthanasia is therefore morally acceptable.

Where is CareCredit accepted?

CareCredit Now Accepted at Rite Aid. Rite Aid now accepts the CareCredit credit card in all of their nearly 2,500 locations nationwide.

Can inbreeding cause birth defects in dogs?

Inbreeding puts dogs at risk of birth defects and genetically inherited health problems. However, the defect may become common in later generations if his grandpuppies and great grandpuppies are mated with each other, rather than introducing new genetic traits by breeding outside their relatives.

Why does inbreeding cause health problems?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

What restaurants accept EBT cards?

Restaurants that accept EBT include: Burger King. Carl's Jr. Church's Chicken. Del Taco. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Great Steaks. Jamba Juice.

What grocery stores accept EBT?

Here's a list of some other stores that accept EBT cards. Target (general merchandise) Family Dollar (dollar stores) Costco and Sam's Club (membership) 7-Eleven (convenience) Wal-Mart, Roses, etc. ( large discount store) Aldi (value food)

Is CareCredit accepted at Walgreens?

Unfortunately, Rite Aid stores that have become Walgreens do not accept CareCredit at this time. Please check back — CareCredit continues to add retail partner locations.

Where is CareCredit card accepted?

CareCredit Now Accepted at Rite Aid. Rite Aid now accepts the CareCredit credit card in all of their nearly 2,500 locations nationwide.

Is EBT accepted at subway?

Subway can only accept EBT cards for purchases made in store.

What items does goodwill accept?

Goodwill happily accepts the following new or gently used items: Vehicles—We are now accepting donations of vehicles in all conditions. Clothing, shoes and boots. Jewelry. Hats, gloves, mittens and scarves. Books, records, compact disks, video tapes and DVDs. Games, toys and sports equipment.

Where care credit is accepted?

CareCredit is accepted at over 200,000 locations nationwide and including dental and vision care providers, veterinary offices, day and medical spas, urgent care, cosmetic and chiropractic, orthopedic, primary care and other healthcare providers.

Does inbreeding cause cleft palate?

Among these populations with high levels of inbreeding, researchers have found several disorders prevalent among inbred offspring. Furthermore, among inbred children in Palestine and Lebanon, there is a positive association between consanguinity and reported cleft lip/palate cases.

Can inbreeding cause problems in dogs?

The coefficient of inbreeding is a really useful tool for anyone breeding dogs. Because scientists have now discovered that dogs with higher COIs are more likely to get sick. Specifically, they have shown that when the COI of any mating exceeds 5%, puppies are at increased risk from the adverse effects of inbreeding.

What airlines accept emotional dogs?

American Airlines. A doctor's letter is required in advance to bring your support animal with you. United. United is making its procedures more robust in order to fly with an emotional support animal starting March 1. Delta. Southwest. JetBlue. Alaska Air. Spirit. WOW Air.

What fast food accepts EBT?

Qualifying SNAP recipients can use their benefits at the following fast food restaurants that accept EBT in Alachua County: KFC. Pizza Hut. Restaurants that accept EBT include: Burger King. Carl's Jr. Church's Chicken. Del Taco. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Great Steaks. Jamba Juice.

What online stores accept EBT?

At the moment, the following companies are accepting EBT cards online to purchase eligible food items: Amazon. Fresh Direct. ShopRite. Walmart. Dahs's Market. Hart's Local Grocers. Hy-Vee. Safeway.

What places accept Care Credit?

CareCredit is accepted at over 200,000 locations nationwide and including dental and vision care providers, veterinary offices, day and medical spas, urgent care, cosmetic and chiropractic, orthopedic, primary care and other healthcare providers.

What is acceptable wear and tear on a rental property?

The House of Lords defines fair wear and tear as: 'Reasonable use of the premises by the tenant and the ordinary operation of natural forces' So when do natural forces become in excess of what is 'ordinary'? Carpet is found to be damaged at the end of the tenancy and the landlord wishes to replace it.

What online grocery stores accept EBT?

In order to avoid confusion, enrollees should check with their local stores before attempting to use EBT to buy groceries online in their areas. Walmart. SNAP enrollees may use their food stamps to purchase groceries online at Walmart. Amazon. Schwan's. FreshDirect.

What restaurants accept EBT food stamps?

Qualifying SNAP recipients can use their benefits at the following fast food restaurants that accept EBT in Alachua County: KFC. Pizza Hut. Taco Bell. Restaurants that accept EBT include: Burger King. Carl's Jr. Church's Chicken. Del Taco. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Great Steaks. Jamba Juice.

What airlines accept pets in cargo?

American Airlines. American Airlines accepts most dogs for cargo shipment, excluding those that are stub-nosed, such as boxers, mastiffs and pugs, as well as pets that have been sedated before the flight. Continental. Continental Airlines accepts dogs as cargo as part of its PetSafe program. Delta. United Airlines.

What stores accept synchrony credit card?

List of All Synchrony Bank STORE Cards ABC Warehouse. ABT. Amazon Store Card. American Eagle Outfitters Store Card. American Signature Furniture Store Card. America's Tire Store Card. Ariens and Gravely Get the Gear Card. Ashley Furniture Home Store.

Where is Walmart credit card accepted?

The Walmart Credit Card can only be used at Walmart stores, Walmart.com, Sam's Club, and its associated gas stations. The Walmart MasterCard, however, can be used anywhere MasterCard is accepted.

What restaurants accept EBT in California?

Restaurants that Accept EBT in California! Burger King. Carl's Jr. Chutney Restaurant. El Torero Taqueria. Jamba Juice. Pizza Hut. Subway.

What fast food restaurants accept food stamps?

Qualifying SNAP recipients can use their benefits at the following fast food restaurants that accept EBT in Alachua County: KFC. Pizza Hut. Taco Bell. Restaurants that accept EBT include: Burger King. Carl's Jr. Church's Chicken. Del Taco. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Great Steaks. Jamba Juice.

What type of payments does GoFundMe accept?

Accepted Cards. Donations can be made to any GoFundMe using most credit and debit cards.

What payment methods does Costco Canada accept?

Terms of Payment. All purchases must be made by cash, debit card, Costco gift certificate, Costco Cash Card, preprinted personal cheque or by those credit cards accepted by Costco from time to time.

Where is care credit card accepted?

CareCredit Now Accepted at Rite Aid. Rite Aid now accepts the CareCredit credit card in all of their nearly 2,500 locations nationwide.

Are blue eyes a sign of inbreeding?

Summary: New research shows that people with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor. Scientists have tracked down a genetic mutation which took place 6,000-10,000 years ago and is the cause of the eye color of all blue-eyed humans alive on the planet today.

What fast food restaurants accept EBT?

Chain Restaurants Restaurants and Fast Food Chains That Take EBT Blimpie. Bruggers Bagels. Burger King. CiCi's Pizza. Cregor's Deli. Dairy Queen. Del Taco. Delta Pride Fish Co. Denny's. Domino's Pizza. Dragon Loco. El Pollo Loco.

Is care credit accepted at Walgreens?

Yes, you can use your CareCredit credit card at all Walgreens and Duane Reade locations across the United States. Search for your nearest location here. CareCredit is also accepted at over 400 Walgreens Healthcare Clinics.

What is an Alusky?

The Alusky is a cross between the Siberian Husky and the Alaskan Malamute, so you're probably already imaging just how big these dogs are, as well as how stunning they are. The Alusky is a cross between a purebred Siberian Husky and Alaskan Malamute.

What is an Orthorexic?

Orthorexia is the term for a condition that includes symptoms of obsessive behavior in pursuit of a healthy diet. Orthorexia sufferers often display signs and symptoms of anxiety disorders that frequently co-occur with anorexia nervosa or other eating disorders.

What is an Auggie?

Auggie as a name for boys is of Latin origin, and the meaning of the name Auggie is "great, magnificient". Auggie is an alternate spelling of Augustus (Latin).

What is an Olly?

The ollie is a skateboarding trick where the rider and board leap into the air without the use of the rider's hands. It is basically the combination of popping, sliding, and jumping on the skateboard all at the same time.

What is an Augie?

Augie is the name of a settlement in Nigeria. Augie is also used as a nickname for variations of the name August, which derives from the Latin Augustus.

How do you get an older dog to accept a puppy?

In order to prevent territorial aggression, find a neutral area to introduce the older dog to the new puppy. Put your older dog on a leash while another person holds the puppy on a leash. However, let them sniff and meet each other; there's no need to hold them tightly to your side.

How do you get an older dog to accept a new puppy?

In order to prevent territorial aggression, find a neutral area to introduce the older dog to the new puppy. Put your older dog on a leash while another person holds the puppy on a leash. However, let them sniff and meet each other; there's no need to hold them tightly to your side.

How long does it take for an older dog to accept a puppy?

After about three weeks, some play between the adults and the puppy begins, although with two of our three dogs it takes maybe four or five weeks before they will choose to play with the pup.

How do you get an older dog to accept a new dog?

In order to prevent territorial aggression, find a neutral area to introduce the older dog to the new puppy. Put your older dog on a leash while another person holds the puppy on a leash. However, let them sniff and meet each other; there's no need to hold them tightly to your side.

What is an overbite?

An overbite is when your upper front teeth overlap with your lower front teeth.

What is an ESA?

A Coverdell Education Savings Account (also known as an Education Savings Account, a Coverdell ESA, a Coverdell Account, or just an ESA, and formerly known as an education individual retirement account), is a tax-advantaged investment account in the United States of America designed to encourage savings to cover future

What is an Airedoodle?

The Airedoodle is a cross between an Airedale Terrier and a Standard Poodle. It is a unique twist on the popular Goldendoodle. The Airedoodle hybrid combines the strong, loyal, sometimes clownish Airedale with the graceful, athletic, people-pleasing poodle to create an easily trained, awesome pup.

What is an RNA?

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

What is an EOS?

EOS®, the Entrepreneurial Operating System, is a complete set of simple concepts and practical tools that has helped thousands of entrepreneurs get what they want from their businesses.

What is an French?

France (French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française, pronounced [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

What is an laceration?

A laceration is a wound that is produced by the tearing of soft body tissue. This type of wound is often irregular and jagged. A laceration wound is often contaminated with bacteria and debris from whatever object caused the cut.

Does PetSmart accept checks?

You may pay for your order with a debit card or major credit card, by using PayPal®, Google Checkout, or a check. We accept Visa®, MasterCard®, American Express® and Discover® Card and debit cards with a MasterCard or Visa logo. If we cannot collect your electronic payment, we will issue a draft against your account.

Do landlords accept pets?

78% of pet owners experience problems finding a rental property. For most landlords letting a pet in the property is a gamble. Even worse, some landlords will only allow pets of certain breeds, weight, or may favour either dogs or cats only.

Which stores accept EBT?

Here's a list of some other stores that accept EBT cards. Target (general merchandise) Family Dollar (dollar stores) Costco and Sam's Club (membership) 7-Eleven (convenience) Wal-Mart, Roses, etc. ( large discount store) Aldi (value food)

Does schwans accept EBT?

What type of payments do you accept? For your convenience, we accept Visa, MasterCard, Discover/Novis, American Express, cash, checks, Schwan's™ Gift Card, Schwan'sPay™ and electronic food stamp cards (EBT). The use of a check for payment is your acknowledgement of this policy and its terms.

Does Domino's accept EBT?

Yes, Domino's Pizza accepts Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) — but only at specific locations. While some locations take EBT, most Domino's do not. EBT is linked to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and lets recipients use a debit card-like system to make purchases.

Does HelloFresh accept EBT?

At this time, HelloFresh does not accept EBT, as stated in the Help Center section of the company's website. HelloFresh currently accepts all major debit and credit cards and PayPal. Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

Does HelloFresh accept snap?

At this time, HelloFresh does not accept EBT, as stated in the Help Center section of the company's website. HelloFresh currently accepts all major debit and credit cards and PayPal. Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

Does Vons accept EBT?

Does Vons accept WIC? Vons accepts both EBT and WIC benefits for qualifying purchases. With EBT, you'll be able to buy most food items, but not hot food. Most major grocery chains accept WIC, and some small, independent grocers and convenience stores accept WIC benefits as payment.

Does Goodwill accept sheets?

Unfortunately, due to safety, legal or environmental concerns, Goodwill cannot accept the following: Furniture that is covered in animal hair, broken, worn, torn, stained, or missing parts. Due to the Digital TV Transition, Goodwill will only take flat-screen tvs.

Does Goodwill accept bedding?

These items are not saleable in our stores and cannot be recycled. Mattresses and box springs. Goodwill does not sell household units in the stores due to state laws requiring them to be sanitized. Commercial sanitized sets are sold in Goodwill stores when available.

Does Aldis accept EBT?

A. We welcome cash, Visa, MasterCard, Discover, American Express, most debit cards, the Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT), Link cards and contactless pay such as Apple Pay and Google Pay. At this time, we do not accept checks or the Women, Infants and Children program (WIC).

Does FreshDirect accept EBT?

Does FreshDirect accept food stamps? FreshDirect is proud to join state and federal agencies in testing a pilot program that will deliver fresh food and groceries to select Bronx ZIP codes for customers using Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) cards. Click here for more information.

Do hotels accept dogs?

Choice boasts a number of dog-friendly hotels in some of the most “dog-friendly cities” across the country. DoubleTree by Hilton – More than 120 DoubleTree properties allow dogs, with a maximum non-refundable fee of $75 per room. Extended Stay America – Dogs are welcome at Extended Stay America properties.

Does Denny's accept EBT?

Does Denny's Take EBT? Yes, Denny's does accept EBT — but only for qualifying individuals in some of the areas that participate in the Restaurant Meals Program (RMP).

Do universities accept Igcse?

For example, leading US and Canadian universities require Cambridge International AS & A Levels, but some US and Canadian colleges and universities will accept students with five Cambridge IGCSEs at grade C or above. In the UK, Cambridge IGCSE is accepted as equivalent to GCSE.

Does CVS accept EBT?

Benefits are administered through electronic benefits transfer (EBT) cards. To learn more about SNAP eligibility requirements and how to apply for benefits, visit the SNAP website. As an added convenience, more than 6,900 CVS Pharmacy stores nationwide accept SNAP EBT.

Will Amazon accept Cryptocurrency?

Amazon To Accept Bitcoin Payments. Bitcoin, through the lightning network, will soon be available as an option to pay on Amazon and other eCommerce sites, according to reports. Moon previously allowed about 250 beta users to use crypto on eCommerce sites by connecting them through exchange accounts like Coinbase.

Does Petsmart accept fish?

most Local Fish Stores (LFS) will accept them for credit. Or they will also take donations. but Petsmart won't take them.

Does Amazon accept Dogecoin?

Doge4Amazon - Accept Dogecoin as a payment method. Currently Amazon does not accept crypto-currencies as a payment method alienating many people who do not have a traditional bank account. Amazon.com being a leader in innovation should accept Dogecoin, as a form of payment. Dogecoin is fast, cheap, and stable.

Does Goodwill accept jewelry?

Goodwill accepts the following items: Accessories: Shoes, belts, scarves, jewelry. Antiques and collectibles: Specialty items can be offered through our online auction site, Shopgoodwill.com. Computers: Bring computers and computer-related peripherals to any Goodwill store or donation bin.

Does Goodwill accept wheelchairs?

Does Goodwill accept used home medical equipment like wheelchairs? Goodwill does accept donations of home medical equipment for our Goodwill Home Medical Equipment Store in Ewing, NJ. Items like electronic and non-electric wheelchairs, hospital beds, commodes, walkers, crutches and more are accepted.

Does AKC accept ABKC?

A: The ABKC currently accepts UKC, AKC & ADBA for American Bullies; BBC for Shorty Bulls and AKC, FCI, NKC, ABRA and IOEBA for Bulldog breeds.

Does AKC accept FCI?

My understanding is that the AKC will accept FCI registration as a basis for registration with the AKC. The AKC is not a member of the FCI but they do have an understanding that papers from either organization can be used to register with the other ( ie they each recognize the others paperwork as valid ).