What is considered inbreeding?

Is Inbreeding Really That Bad?

Best Answer

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits.

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What is an inbreeding coefficient?

The coefficient of inbreeding of an individual is the probability that two genes at any locus in an individual are identical by descent from the common ancestor(s) of the two parents.

What is a high inbreeding coefficient?

The coefficient of inbreeding of an individual is the probability that two genes at any locus in an individual are identical by descent from the common ancestor(s) of the two parents.

What causes inbreeding?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

When Royal Inbreeding Went Horribly Wrong

Why is inbreeding dangerous?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

Why is inbreeding bad?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

What is an acceptable inbreeding coefficient?

Inbreeding, put simply, is the mating of related individuals – those individuals with common ancestors. This is the probability that two copies of the same variant at a gene have been inherited from an ancestor common to both the sire and dam. The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient.

What is a good inbreeding coefficient?

The degree of inbreeding can be measured by using a Coefficient of Inbreeding (COI). This is the probability that two copies of the same variant at a gene have been inherited from an ancestor common to both the sire and dam. The lower the degree of inbreeding, the lower the inbreeding coefficient.

Is inbreeding in dogs bad?

Offspring from a mother-son mating would, therefore, have a 25% chance of inheriting two bad copies of the mutations that have been passed down to the son. This is a greater than 100-fold risk compared to an outbred dog! Inbreeding in dogs has real consequences.

What Happens When You Inbreed? | Earth Lab

Is inbreeding dogs illegal?

Is inbreeding dogs illegal. No it isn't its just not always a wise way to go when breeding animals. While potentially it may put all good characteristics doubled up into one puppy it also could line up negative characteristics from hidden recessive genes leading to smaller litter size and unhealthy puppies.

Is hemophilia caused by inbreeding?

Hemophilia is caused by a mutation—likely spontaneous in Victoria's case—on the X chromosome and can be passed along the maternal line of families. It is also recessive and is more commonly exhibited in males, causing it to go undetected in many carriers, who may pass it on to future generations.

What is considered wastewater?

Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use. Wastewater is "used water from any combination of domestic, industrial, commercial or agricultural activities, surface runoff or stormwater, and any sewer inflow or sewer infiltration".

Is inbreeding bad for dogs?

The coefficient of inbreeding is a really useful tool for anyone breeding dogs. Because scientists have now discovered that dogs with higher COIs are more likely to get sick. Specifically, they have shown that when the COI of any mating exceeds 5%, puppies are at increased risk from the adverse effects of inbreeding.

Why inbreeding dogs is bad?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

What Happens When You Inbreed?

What is considered death?

Today, where a definition of the moment of death is required, doctors and coroners usually turn to "brain death" or "biological death" to define a person as being dead; people are considered dead when the electrical activity in their brain ceases.

What is considered haram?

The religious term haram, based on the Quran, is applied to: Actions, such as premarital sex, murder, or getting a tattoo. Policies, such as riba (usury, interest). Certain food and drink, such as pork and alcohol. Some ḥalāl objects, foods or actions that are normally halal but under some conditions become haram.

What deformities are caused by inbreeding?

When deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases.

What is considered excessive barking?

Excessive barking (as defined by the Dog and Cat Management Act 1995) is when a dog creates a noise, by barking or otherwise, which persistently occurs or continues to such a degree or extent that it unreasonably interferes with the peace, comfort or convenience of a person.Excessive noise is one of the most frequent

What is considered a canine?

Canine, (family Canidae), also called canid, any of 36 living species of foxes, wolves, jackals, and other members of the dog family. Found throughout the world, canines tend to be slender long-legged animals with long muzzles, bushy tails, and erect pointed ears.

What is considered e waste?

Electronic waste or e-waste describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. Used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal are also considered e-waste.

What is considered public property?

A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people. Although not considered public space, privately owned buildings or property visible from sidewalks and public thoroughfares may affect the public visual landscape, for example, by outdoor advertising.

What is considered a purebred?

Purebred are those animals that have been bred-up to purebred status as a result of using full blood animals to cross with an animal of another breed. The breeders association rules the percentage of fullblood genetics required for an animal to be considered purebred, usually above 87.5%.

What is considered excessive crying?

Normal crying patterns — All infants cry more during the first three months of life than during any other time. There is no standard definition for "excessive" crying, although it is normal for infants to cry for up to two hours per day. Colic — Colic is more than excessive "normal" crying, at least in some infants.

What is considered excessive yawning?

Yawning is a mostly involuntary process of opening the mouth and breathing in deeply, filling the lungs with air. It is a very natural response to being tired. In fact, yawning is usually triggered by sleepiness or fatigue. Excessive yawning is yawning that occurs more than once per minute.

What is the difference between line breeding and inbreeding?

In genetic terminology, inbreeding is the breeding of two animals who are related to each other. Exactly what the difference is between linebreeding and inbreeding tends to be defined differently for each species and often for each breed within the species.

What is considered animal neglect?

A neglected animal is not provided with proper food, water, veterinary care, shelter and socialization. In many cases, animal neglect can be prosecuted as a felony if the neglect was intentional, malicious or extreme enough to be considered "torture" or to have caused extreme physical suffering or death.

What is considered a mammal?

Mammal. Mammal, (class Mammalia), any member of the group of vertebrate animals in which the young are nourished with milk from special mammary glands of the mother. Hair is a typical mammalian feature, although in many whales it has disappeared except in the fetal stage.

What is considered loose stool?

In order for loose stools to be considered diarrhea, they have to occur repeatedly. If you have loose stools three or more times per day, then it's diarrhea. The most common symptoms of loose stools include: watery stools. soft or mushy stools.

What is considered excessive noise?

Excessive noise. Excessive noise is any noise that is under human control and unreasonably interferes with the peace, comfort and convenience of any person. Examples of excessive noise include: a loud party. loud amplified music.

What is considered a mutt?

A mixed-breed dog is a cross between three or more different dog breeds. Crossbreds are dogs with two different purebred parents. Often called “mutts,” they technically belong to no specific breed group. Of course, you could let your mutt keep you guessing!

What is considered puppy stage?

Smaller breeds generally reach maturity somewhere around 12 months of age, whereas large and giant breed puppies may be anywhere between 18 and 24 months old before they can be considered 'adult'. The first stage in puppy development covers the first 3 weeks of your puppy's life.

What is considered mental illness?

Mental illness refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors. Many people have mental health concerns from time to time.

What is considered a millionaire?

A millionaire is an individual whose net worth or wealth is equal to or exceeds one million units of currency. Depending on the currency, a certain level of prestige is associated with being a millionaire, which makes that amount of wealth a goal for some and almost unattainable for others.

What salary is considered rich?

This group of earners makes at least two times the national median household income: $59,039 in 2016, according to the latest data from the US Census Bureau's 2016 American Community Survey. Nationally, the threshold for "rich" is $118,080, but that figure varies from city to city depending on the local median income.

What is considered illegal dumping?

Illegal dumping, also called fly dumping or fly tipping, is the dumping of waste illegally instead of using an authorised method such as kerbside collection or using an authorised rubbish dump. It is the illegal deposit of any waste onto land, including waste dumped or tipped on a site with no licence to accept waste.

What is considered chemical waste?

Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories). This type of hazardous waste must be categorized as to its identity, constituents, and hazards so that it may be safely handled and managed. Chemical waste is a broad term and encompasses many types of materials.

What is considered dog neglect?

Acts of violence or neglect perpetrated against animals are considered animal cruelty. Examples include overt animal abuse, dog and cock fighting and companion animal neglect where the animal is denied basic necessities of care such as fresh water and food or shelter.

Does inbreeding affect animals?

While linebreeding is less likely to cause problems in the first generation than does inbreeding, over time, linebreeding can reduce the genetic diversity of a population and cause problems related to a too-small gene pool that may include an increased prevalence of genetic disorders and inbreeding depression.

What is a hotdog considered?

The hot dog (also spelled hotdog) or dog is a grilled or steamed link-sausage sandwich where the sausage is served in the slit of a partially sliced hot dog bun, a bun of size and shape to hold the sausage. The names of these sausages also commonly refer to their assembled sandwiches.

What is considered a sandwich?

A sandwich is a food typically consisting of vegetables, sliced cheese or meat, placed on or between slices of bread, or more generally any dish wherein two or more pieces of bread serve as a container or wrapper for another food type.

What is considered disrespectful behavior?

Definitions. Disrespectful Behavior: Behavior that is rude, unpleasant, inappropriate, and unprofessional. Behavior that causes hurt feelings and distresses, disturbs, and/or offends others. Uncivil Behavior: Rude, impolite, discourteous behavior that displays a lack of regard for others. ( Daniel B.

What is considered animal abandonment?

Animal Abandonment Law and Legal Definition. Animal abandonment means leaving behind an animal alone or permitting the animal to be abandoned in circumstances which might cause harm to the animal. Owner of the animal is answerable for the suffering caused to the animal. This is a serious criminal offense in the U.S.

What is considered bland food?

A bland diet is a diet consisting of foods that are generally soft, low in dietary fiber, cooked rather than raw, and not spicy. Fried and fatty foods, strong cheeses, whole grains (rich in fiber), and the medications aspirin and ibuprofen are also avoided while on this diet.

What is considered a pitbull?

Pit bull is the common name for a type of dog descended from bulldogs and terriers. Formal breeds often considered to be of the pit bull type include the American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, American Bully, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier. The American Bulldog is also sometimes included.

What is considered a sin?

Roman Catholic doctrine distinguishes between personal sin (also sometimes called "actual sin") and original sin. Personal sins are either mortal or venial. The act of committing a mortal sin destroys charity, i. e. the grace in the heart of a Christian; it is in itself a rejection of God (CCC1855).

What is considered good LDL?

LDL cholesterol levels should be less than 100 mg/dL. Levels of 100 to 129 mg/dL are acceptable for people with no health issues but may be of more concern for those with heart disease or heart disease risk factors. A reading of 130 to 159 mg/dL is borderline high and 160 to 189 mg/dL is high.

What is considered the Orient?

In British English, the term Oriental is used to refer to people from East and Southeast Asia (such as those from China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Mongolia and Laos).

What is considered a conviction?

In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime. The opposite of a conviction is an acquittal (that is, "not guilty"). After a defendant is convicted, the court determines the appropriate sentence as a punishment.

What is considered emotionally disabled?

(A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

What is considered severe diarrhea?

Severe diarrhea means having more than 10 loose, watery stools in a single day (24 hours). Moderate diarrhea means having more than a few but not more than 10 diarrhea stools in a day. Mild diarrhea means having a few diarrhea stools in a day.

What is considered work harassment?

Harassment becomes unlawful where 1) enduring the offensive conduct becomes a condition of continued employment, or 2) the conduct is severe or pervasive enough to create a work environment that a reasonable person would consider intimidating, hostile, or abusive.

What is considered nuisance barking?

Nuisance Defined. Example #1 Nuisance noise from a dog is defined as barking or whining for more than 5-minutes in any 1-hour period. Example #2 Excessive barking is barking that is persistent and occurs for an extended period of time or on a repeated basis.

What is considered Indian summer?

Indian summer. Indian summers are common in North America, Europe and Asia. The US National Weather Service defines this as weather conditions that are sunny and clear with above average temperatures, occurring September to November. It is usually described as occurring after a killing frost.

What is considered rapid breathing?

The average person takes between 12 to 20 breaths per minute. Rapid, shallow breathing, also called tachypnea, occurs when you take more breaths than normal in a given minute. When a person breathes rapidly, it's sometimes known as hyperventilation. Either term applies to this condition.

What is considered finger food?

Finger food is food meant to be eaten directly using the hands, in contrast to food eaten with a knife and fork, spoon, chopsticks, or other utensils. In some cultures, food is almost always eaten with the hands; for example, Ethiopian cuisine is eaten by rolling various dishes up in injera bread.

What is considered toxic waste?

A material is considered toxic when it causes death or harm by being inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin. The waste can contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins. Toxic material can be either human-made and others are naturally occurring in the environment.

What is considered big game?

Many other species of big game are hunted including kudu, antelope, and hartebeest. Moose, elk, caribou, bison, mule deer, and white-tailed deer are the largest game hunted in North America, which is where most big-game hunting is conducted today.

What is considered animal hoarding?

Animal hoarding occurs when an individual is housing more animals than he or she can adequately care for. In the majority of cases, animal hoarders believe they are helping their animals and deny this inability to provide minimum care.

What is considered baby babbling?

Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words. The physical structures involved in babbling are still being developed in the first year of a child's life.

What does inbreeding do to dogs?

Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits.

What are the effects of inbreeding?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

Which is a disadvantage of inbreeding?

There may also be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases. Despite all its disadvantages, inbreeding can also have a variety of advantages, such as reducing the recombination load, and allowing the expression of recessive advantageous phenotypes.

Why does inbreeding reduce fitness?

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression.

What is considered a dangerous dog?

A dog can be legally classified as "dangerous" or "vicious" based upon its actions, its breed, or the actions of its owner, either before or after an official hearing, pursuant to the law of the jurisdiction where the dog is present.

What is considered your golden birthday?

A person's golden or grand birthday, also referred to as their "lucky birthday", "champagne birthday", or "star birthday", occurs when they turn the age of their birth day (e.g., when someone born on the 25th of the month turns 25 or when someone born on the ninth turns nine).

What is considered vitamin D deficiency?

Tests for Vitamin D Deficiency. The most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your body is the 25-hydroxy vitamin D blood test. A level of 20 nanograms/milliliter to 50 ng/mL is considered adequate for healthy people. A level less than 12 ng/mL indicates vitamin D deficiency.

What is considered animal cruelty in Texas?

House Bill 653 and Senate Bill 1724, commonly known as “Loco's Law,” went into effect September 1, 2001, making animal cruelty a felony and punishable by a $10,000 fine and up to two years in jail. Prior to Loco's Law, animal cruelty was not considered a felony under Texas law.

What is considered a heavy drinker?

For healthy adults in general, drinking more than these single-day or weekly limits is considered "at-risk" or "heavy" drinking: Men: More than 4 drinks on any day or 14 per week. Women: More than 3 drinks on any day or 7 per week.

What is considered a hobby farm?

A hobby farm (also called a lifestyle block in New Zealand, or acreage living or rural residential in Australia) is a smallholding or small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income.

What is considered a cluster of seizures?

Seizure clusters are seizures that start and stop, but occur in groups one right after another. They are more commonly seen in children with certain epilepsy syndromes such as Lennox Gastaut Syndrome (LGS) and can look different depending on the child.

What is considered a first love?

Ah, your first love: that special someone who stole your heart first, and if you're being fully honest with yourself, probably still has it. Whether things ended with mutual respect, or a bang heard around the world (or at least by your neighbors) your first love is likely something you think about to this day.

What age is a dog considered old?

It varies, but cats and small dogs are generally considered to be old at the age of 7. Larger breed dogs tend to have shorter life spans and are considered to be old when they are approximately 6 years of age. Owners tend to want to think of their pet's age in human terms.

What is considered a dysfunctional family?

A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse on the part of individual parents occur continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions. Dysfunctional parents may emulate or over-correct from their own dysfunctional parents.

What is considered a good salary?

Income is, of course, another very important consideration for most people. “As such, a $50,000 salary would be above the national median and a pretty good salary, of course, dependent on where one lives." That's good news for people making an annual salary of $50,000 or higher.

What size dog is a beagle considered?

Beagles come in two sizes: 13-inch and 15-inch. The smaller variety includes Beagles who are no taller than 13 inches at the shoulder and weigh 22 to 30 pounds, while the larger variety includes Beagles who are taller than 13 inches but not more than 15 inches and weigh up to 35 pounds.

What is considered large breed puppy?

Royal Canine defines a medium dog as 24-to-55 pounds and a large dog to be over 55 pounds. Dogs who weigh 25-to-35 pounds may be called small or medium, and dogs from 55-to-60 pounds are considered medium or large depending on who you ask.

What is considered low income in Hawaii?

HONOLULU (HawaiiNewsNow) - An Oahu family of four bringing in $93,300 or less this year is considered "low income" under newly-released U.S. Housing and Urban Development guidelines. Meanwhile, the guidelines consider a single person earning $65,350 a year low income compared to $58,300 in 2017.

Why does inbreeding depression occur?

Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression.

Does inbreeding cause birth defects?

Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects. The chances of such disorders are increased when the biological parents are more closely related.

How can inbreeding cause problems?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

What is considered a small sized dog?

Generally a small dog is considered to weigh less than 22lbs or be shorter than 16 inches. weighing in at only 6 to 8 pounds and standing only 6 to 10 inches tall. While the larger of the small breeds like the Staffordshire Bull Terrier weigh 24 to 36 pounds and stand at 14 to 16 inches tall.

What is considered a dog bite?

A dog bite is a bite inflicted upon a person or another animal by a dog. More than one successive bite is often considered as a dog attack. The majority of dog bites do not result in injury, disfigurement, infection or permanent disability.

What is considered a large lipoma?

A lipoma is a knot of fatty tissue that is usually found just below the skin (subcutaneous). Lipomas tend to grow slowly, often over a period of months or years. They are usually small (usually less than 2 inches across). Sometimes larger lipomas do occur, with some reaching almost 8 inches across.

What is considered excessive licking in dogs?

Medical Reasons Why Dog Lick. Excessive licking or licking more than usual could be the sign of an underlying medical issue. Potential medical causes for licking include allergies that cause the skin or paws to itch.

What is considered excessive dog barking?

Excessive barking (as defined by the Dog and Cat Management Act 1995) is when a dog creates a noise, by barking or otherwise, which persistently occurs or continues to such a degree or extent that it unreasonably interferes with the peace, comfort or convenience of a person.Excessive noise is one of the most frequent

What is considered an exotic pet?

"Exotic" often refers to a species which is not native or indigenous to the owner's locale, and "pet" is a companion animal living with people. However, many use the term to include native species as well (e.g., snakes may sometimes be considered exotic as pets even in places where they are found in the wild).

What is considered a purebred dog?

A purebred dog typically refers to a dog of a modern dog breed with a documented pedigree in a stud book and may be registered with a breed club that may also be part of a national kennel club. However, the usual definition is the one that involves modern breeds.

What is considered provoking a dog?

What Is Provocation in a Dog Bite Case? When someone hears the word “provocation,” teasing or poking or being mean to a dog is what typically comes to mind. While that kind of behavior counts as provocation, other unintentional actions can also lead to a provocation defense.

What is considered an aggressive breed?

Basically, all aggressive breeds and their mixes (ex: husky-pitbull mix, mastiff-pit bull mix, Doberman-pitbull mix) can be banned by certain apartment communities. What dog breeds are considered aggressive? German shepherds. Pit bull terriers. Cane corsos. Rottweilers. Staffordshire terriers. Akitas. Mastiffs. Great Danes.

What is considered really bad vision?

Most people who are classified as "blind" actually have remaining sight. When the vision in the better eye with best possible glasses correction is: 20/30 to 20/60, this is considered mild vision loss, or near-normal vision. 20/70 to 20/160, this is considered moderate visual impairment, or moderate low vision.

What age is considered elderly medically?

“Older” is preferred over "elderly," but both are equally imprecise; > 65 is the age often used, but most people do not need geriatrics expertise in their care until age 70, 75, or even 80. Gerontology is the study of aging, including biologic, sociologic, and psychologic changes.

What is considered a dangerous heart rate?

Normal resting heart rate can vary from person to person, but for most adults, it's between 60 and 100 beats per minute.

What size is considered a small dog?

Medium to Small Dog Breeds. Dogs, typically between 26 to 50 lbs or between 18 to 25 inch at the shoulder, approximately, are grouped under this category.

What income is considered food stamps?

Net income is the gross income minus your allowable déductions. If your household only consists of one person, then the gross monthly income to be eligible for SNAP is $1,287 (net $990). For two people, gross is $1,726 (net $1,335).

What is considered a puppy cut?

Essentially, the puppy cut is one length all over. The most common length is between 1-2 inches over the body, legs, tail, head, and ears. The term “puppy cut” can be tricky. In some circles the puppy cut can also be known as the “teddy bear trim”, “summer cut”, or “kennel cut.”

What is considered a small dog breed?

Generally a small dog is considered to weigh less than 22lbs or be shorter than 16 inches. So, your first choice is to decide if you want a really small dog like a Chihuahua or if you don't mind a larger small dog like a Staffordshire Bull Terrier.

What is considered an early talker?

Early Talking. While most children say their first word at around 1 year of age, gifted children may begin speaking when they are 9 months old. Some parents report that their children said their first word even earlier than that, as early as 6 months of age.

Can inbreeding cause birth defects in dogs?

Inbreeding puts dogs at risk of birth defects and genetically inherited health problems. However, the defect may become common in later generations if his grandpuppies and great grandpuppies are mated with each other, rather than introducing new genetic traits by breeding outside their relatives.

Why does inbreeding cause health problems?

Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits. This usually leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population (called inbreeding depression), which is its ability to survive and reproduce.

What is considered a medium sized dog?

Medium-sized dog breeds stand about 18-22 inches at the shoulder and weigh about 40-60 pounds. My dog breed reviews include positives AND negatives – good and bad traits and characteristics – on temperament, personality, behavior, exercise requirements, shedding, etc.

What is considered a working dog?

A working dog is a canine working animal, i.e., a type of dog that is not merely a pet but learns and performs tasks to assist and/or entertain its human companions, or a breed of such origin. In Australia and New Zealand, a working dog is one which has been trained to work livestock, irrespective of its breeding.