When did Republicans become Democrats?

Why red means Republican and blue means Democrat

Best Answer

So, sometime between the 1860s and 1936, the (Democratic) party of small government became the party of big government, and the (Republican) party of big government became rhetorically committed to curbing federal power.

History of the Republican Party | American civics | US government and civics | Khan Academy

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When did Democrats and Republicans switch parties?

It held to small government principles and distrusted the national government. Foreign policy was a major issue. After being the dominant party in U.S. politics from 1800 to 1829, the Democratic-Republicans split into two factions by 1828: the federalist National Republicans, and the Democrats.

How did Democrats become blue and Republicans red?

The answer is: Because the assignation of red-as-Republican, blue-as-Democrat didn't become the standard until the last election of the third century in which America existed: the election of 2000. But by 1992, networks seem to have mostly settled on red-for-Republican, blue-for-Democrat.

How did the Democrats and Republicans switch?

When faced with the sobering reality that Democrats supported slavery, started the Civil War when the abolitionist Republican Party won the Presidency, established the Ku Klux Klan to brutalize newly freed slaves and keep them from voting, opposed the Civil Rights Movement, modern-day liberals reflexively perpetuate

Why Did the Democratic and Republican Parties Switch Platforms?

Why did Democrats and Republicans switch colors?

So, sometime between the 1860s and 1936, the (Democratic) party of small government became the party of big government, and the (Republican) party of big government became rhetorically committed to curbing federal power. According to Rauchway, they, like Republicans, were trying to win the West.

Why did Texas become Republican?

Texas was a solidly Democratic state for decades. The state's shift to Republican began in 1961, when John Tower won a special election for U.S. Senate, becoming the first Texas Republican elected statewide since Reconstruction. Lloyd Bentsen was the last Democrat elected to the U.S. Senate from Texas in 1988.

Is Texas Democrat or Republican?

Despite increasing Republican strength in national elections, after the 1990 census, Texas Democrats still controlled both houses of the State Legislature and most statewide offices. Republicans have won the governorship ever since.

What states are Democratic or Republican?

Wyoming was the most Republican state in 2018, with 59% of its residents identifying as Republican or leaning Republican and 25% identifying as Democratic or leaning Democratic. Wyoming has been the most Republican state eight times since 2008, including the past six years as well as in 2009 and 2010.

Is Austin Texas Republican or Democrat?

Republicans control all statewide Texas offices, both houses of the state legislature and have a majority in the Texas congressional delegation. Democrats benefit heavily from its large cities; Austin, the state capital, is Democrat, as are El Paso, Houston, Dallas, San Antonio and the Rio Grande Valley.

From white supremacy to Barack Obama: The history of the Democratic Party

What do Republicans and Democrats stand for?

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States; the other is its historic rival, the Democratic Party. The party originally subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform.

Is Texas Democrat or Republican 2018?

Texas has not elected a Democratic senate candidate since 1988. It should also be noted that Ted Cruz defeated Donald Trump in the Texas Republican primary for U.S. President in 2016.

Is Texas Republican or Democratic 2018?

Texas has not elected a Democratic senate candidate since 1988. It should also be noted that Ted Cruz defeated Donald Trump in the Texas Republican primary for U.S. President in 2016.

What is the Republican equivalent of a Yellow Dog Democrat?

What is the equivalent of "yellow dog Democrats ", on the Republican side? “Yellow Dog Democrats was a political term applied to voters in the Southern United States who voted solely for candidates who represented the Democratic Party.

What is the difference between Democratic and Republican?

Ideology - Democrats are generally viewed as left-leaning and conservation whereas Republican are right-leaning and liberal. However, Democrats fear that corporations have too much control over our government. Gun Control - Republicans oppose gun control whereas Democrats Favour it.

How the Republican Party went from Lincoln to Trump

What are the colors of Democrats and Republicans?

Since the 1984 election, CBS has used the opposite scheme: blue for Democrats, red for Republicans. ABC used yellow for Republicans and blue for Democrats in 1976, then red for Republicans and blue for Democrats in 1980 and 1984, and 1988.

When did hamsters become pets?

History. Although the Syrian hamster or golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was first described scientifically by George Robert Waterhouse in 1839, researchers were not able to successfully breed and domesticate hamsters until 1939.

When did flying become common?

By the end of the 1950s, America's airlines were bringing a new level of speed, comfort, and efficiency to the traveling public. But as flying became commonplace and jet aircraft began to replace piston-engine airliners, the air travel experience began to change.

When did dogs become domesticated?

These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.

When did wolves become dogs?

These two groups, before going extinct, were domesticated independently into two distinct dog populations between 14,000 and 6,400 years ago. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago.

When did euthanasia become illegal?

It was once legal in the Northern Territory, by the Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995. In 1997, the Australian Federal Government overrode the Northern Territory legislation through the introduction of the Euthanasia Laws Act 1997.

When did cows become domesticated?

Cattle occupy a unique role in human history, having been domesticated since at least the early neolithic age. Archeozoological and genetic data indicate that cattle were first domesticated from wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) approximately 10,500 years ago.

When did cats become pets?

Archaeologists have found evidence that suggests that cats in Cyprus were domesticated around 9500 years ago, long before the love affair with cats began in Ancient Egypt. A separate study and genetic analysis suggested that domestication of the animals began closer to 12,000 years ago.

When did pets become popular?

The first animal to make the transition from the wild to the domesticated state was the wolf, the common ancestor of all modern-day dogs. This occurred at least 12,000–14,000 years ago when people discovered that young wolf cubs that remained subordinate to humans as adults could be trained.

When did memes become popular?

Internet memes grew as a concept in the mid-1990s. At the time, memes were just short clips that were shared between people in Usenet forums. As the internet evolved, so did memes. When YouTube was released in 2005, video memes became popular.

When did bull baiting become illegal?

It was not finally outlawed until parliament passed the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1835, which forbade the keeping of any house, pit, or other place for baiting or fighting any bull, bear, dog, or other animal.

When did navel piercings become popular?

The navel piercing is one of the most common body piercings today. Popular culture has played a large role in the promotion of this piercing. The navel piercing first hit the mainstream when model Christy Turlington showed her navel piercing at a fashion show in London in 1993.

When did black lights become popular?

Since then, the art form has gone out of fashion and is generally viewed as a relic of the 1970s. Although blacklight posters have continually been produced since the 1960s, there has been a resurgence in popularity since 2007 as blacklight and glow-in-the-dark parties have become more popular.

When did humans and dogs become friends?

Man's best friend came about after generations of wolves scavenged alongside humans more than 33,000 years ago in south east Asia, according to new research. Dogs became self-domesticated as they slowly evolved from wolves who joined humans in the hunt, according to the first study of dog genomes.

When did BAE become a word?

The term originated as an abbreviation of the word "baby" or "babe". It has been suggested that the term originated as an acronym for "before anyone else", but this is unlikely and this false etymology is probably an example of a backronym.

When did America become a superpower?

1898: The Birth of a Superpower. The global equilibrium, which had allowed the United States to grow and prosper in virtual isolation since 1815 was gone forever as the result of a short but shattering war.

When did dogs become man's best friend?

Man's best friend came about after generations of wolves scavenged alongside humans more than 33,000 years ago in south east Asia, according to new research. Dogs became self-domesticated as they slowly evolved from wolves who joined humans in the hunt, according to the first study of dog genomes.

When did Doge become a meme?

Io9 compared the internal dialog of the Shiba Inu dogs to lolspeak. On December 13, Doge was named the "top meme" of 2013 by Know Your Meme.

When did hot dogs become popular?

It is believed that the very first hot dog – once called 'dachshund sausages' – was sold by a German immigrant out of a food cart in New York in the 1860s. Around 1870, a German immigrant by the name of Charles Feltman opened the first hot dog stand on Coney Island.

When did pit bulls become popular?

19th Century England – Bull baiting was banned, and dog fighting became a popular underground activity in the UK and then the U.S. when British immigrants came here with their dogs. Early 20th Century U.S. – The breed spread and was primarily used for herding and working once again.

When did pet rocks become popular?

The fad lasted about six months, ending after a short increase in sales during the Christmas season of December 1975. Although by February 1976 they were discounted due to lower sales, Dahl sold 1.5 million Pet Rocks for $4 each, and became a millionaire.

When did dogs become house pets?

Scientists believe dogs started moving around the world, perhaps with their human companions, about 20,000 years ago. By 7,000 years ago, they were pretty much everywhere, although they were not the kind of dogs that we would consider pets.

When did tail docking become illegal in the UK?

The docking of dogs' tails was banned in Scotland in 2007. There is also a ban in England and Wales, but it does not apply to working dogs. The exemption was included in legislation south of the border because of the risk of injury to dogs while they are retrieving game birds from thick brambles or gorse.

When did closed shops become illegal in the UK?

Although closed shops were declared illegal in the United States under the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, they continue to exist in practice; however, they are not written into contracts.

When did GPS become available to the public?

The United States government created the system, maintains it, and makes it freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver. The GPS project was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1973 for use by the United States military and became fully operational in 1995. It was allowed for civilian use in the 1980s.

When did hot dogs become popular in America?

It is believed that the very first hot dog – once called 'dachshund sausages' – was sold by a German immigrant out of a food cart in New York in the 1860s. Around 1870, a German immigrant by the name of Charles Feltman opened the first hot dog stand on Coney Island.

Did wolves become dogs?

Gray wolves and dogs diverged from an extinct wolf species some 15,000 to 40,000 years ago. Last summer, research reported in Nature Communications pushed likely dates for domestication further back into the past, suggesting that dogs were domesticated just once at least 20,000 but likely closer to 40,000 years ago.

Where did the term Yellow Dog Democrat come from?

Yellow Dog Democrats was a political term applied to voters in the Southern United States who voted solely for candidates who represented the Democratic Party. The term originated in the late 19th century. These voters would allegedly "vote for a yellow dog before they would vote for any Republican".

Where did the term Blue Dog Democrat come from?

The group takes it name from a play on the phrase “Yellow-Dog Democrat” which was coined, according to William Safire, in 1928 to describe Southern Democrats who held their nose and supported the party's presidential candidate New Yorker Al Smith.

How did Wolf become dog?

Gray wolves and dogs diverged from an extinct wolf species some 15,000 to 40,000 years ago. “We found that our ancient dogs from the same time period were very similar to modern European dogs, including the majority of breed dogs people keep as pets,” explained Dr. Veeramah in a release accompanying the study.

How did wolves become dogs?

The genetic divergence between dogs and wolves occurred between 40,000–20,000 years ago, just before or during the Last Glacial Maximum. The domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf (Canis lupus) by nomadic hunter-gatherers.

How did dogs become dogs?

Dogs were just a loose category of wolves until around 15,000 years ago, when our ancestors tamed and began to manage them. We fed them, bred them, and spread them from continent to continent. While other wolf descendants died out, dogs grew into a new species. We invented the dog.

How did dogs become domesticated?

Dogs most probably evolved from wolves at a single location about 20,000 to 40,000 years ago, a study suggests. By looking at the rates of change to the DNA from the oldest specimen, scientists were able to place the timing of the domestication of dogs to between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago.

How did cats become domesticated?

In a new comprehensive study of the spread of domesticated cats, DNA analysis suggests that cats lived for thousands of years alongside humans before they were domesticated. The earlier ancestors of today's domestic cats spread from southwest Asia and into Europe as early as 4400 B.C.

How did Hephaestus become lame?

Hephaestus was the son of Zeus and Hera or, in some accounts, of Hera alone. He limped because he was born lame, which caused his mother to throw him off Mount Olympus. Or in other accounts he interceded in a fight between Zeus and Hera, and Zeus took him by the foot and threw him from Olympus to the earth far below.

Why did dogs become domesticated?

The domestication of animals commenced over 15,000 years ago, beginning with the grey wolf (Canis lupus) by nomadic hunter-gatherers. The Western Eurasian dog population was gradually and partially replaced by East Asian dogs introduced by humans at least 6,400 years ago. This proposal is also debated.

How did OK Become Okay?

A more likely explanation is that the term originated as an abbreviation of orl korrekt , a jokey misspelling of 'all correct' which was current in the US in the 1830s. The oldest written references result from its use as a slogan by the Democratic party during the American Presidential election of 1840.

How did cats become pets?

The cats likely started hanging around farming communities in the Fertile Crescent about 8,000 years ago, where they settled into a mutually beneficial relationship as humans' rodent patrol. Instead, people more or less allowed cats to domesticate themselves.

How did hamsters become pets?

The domestication of the Syrian hamster began in the late 1700s when naturalists cataloged the Syrian hamster, also known as Mesocricetus auratus or the golden hamster. In 1930 medical researchers captured Syrian hamster breeding stock for animal testing. Further domestication led this animal to become a popular pet.

How did Chicago become the Windy City?

"If you had always assumed that Chicago earned its nickname as the Windy City from the chilly gusts coming off Lake Michigan, you would be wrong. The city is windy, according to most local legends, because of the hot air bellowing from politicians."

How did Doge become a meme?

But the dog that most often represents the doge meme nearly died a few years ago, according to The Verge's Kyle Chayka, who traced the origin of the meme. The photo of Kabosu, the adopted eight-year-old Shiba Inu, that is used most often by doge enthusiasts originated here, from 2010, on the owner's blog.

How did wild dogs become domesticated?

The line between wolves and dogs was also blurred throughout the domestication process as animals from the wolf and dog lineages occasionally bred (something they still do today). Still, despite this mixing with their wild cousins, dogs on the whole remain considerably more domesticated than cats.

Why did dogs become man's best friend?

How Did Dogs Become Man's Best Friend? Dogs are not only man's best friend; they are also his oldest one. Although historians agree that dogs were the first domesticated animal, there is debate on how long ago and where the friendship began. And there was a pay-off when man and tame wolf became a dynamic hunting duo.

How did cats and dogs become pets?

Humans also deliberately bred dogs to be more adorable. Other pets came later. Sheep and goats were first domesticated roughly 11,000 years ago, while cats became pets around 7000 B.C. with the advent of agriculture. (As people collected and stored grain, it would attract mice, which would then attract cats.)

How did Bill Gates become so rich?

Larson runs Gates' personal investment company Cascade Investment LLC, funded solely by Gates. At one time, Gates' wealth depended solely on Microsoft. And although Gates has given an astounding $38 billion to his charitable foundation, thanks to Larson, he's getting richer faster than he can give his money away.

Why did my dog become paralyzed?

When a dog is experiencing paralysis, it is often because communications between the spinal cord and the brain have been disrupted. Some breeds are genetically predisposed to a condition called degenerative myelopathy (DM), a disease that attacks the nerves in the spines of older dogs (above seven years).

How did Jeffree Star become so rich?

He started out as a Myspace personality, Jesus Christ. He got big there and used it to launch his music career. His music career got pretty big, giving him fame. But he used his fame from that music to launch his makeup brand Jeffree Star Cosmetics, and that's what he doing now.

How did dogs become so small?

Origin of Small Dogs Pinned Down. The ancestor of all those Chihuahuas, spaniels and tiny terriers likely came from the Middle East, a new study finds. They found that the wolves didn't posses this variant of the IGF1 gene, which shows that this mutation for small body size arose after dogs were first domesticated .

How did cats become house pets?

All domestic cats, the authors declared, descended from a Middle Eastern wildcat, Felis sylvestris, which literally means "cat of the woods." Cats were first domesticated in the Near East, and some of the study authors speculate that the process began up to 12,000 years ago.

How did dogs become different breeds?

And the reason dogs are divided into diseased breeds is that we made them that way. Dogs were just a loose category of wolves until around 15,000 years ago, when our ancestors tamed and began to manage them. We fed them, bred them, and spread them from continent to continent.

When to Use become and becomes?

Whether you should use "become" or "becomes" depends on what the word intends to describe- number or orders. Here, becomes refers to number. Number is used as singular here, so you should use becomes.

Why did my dog suddenly become aggressive?

Some medical conditions can cause dogs to become aggressive. If a dog that has never shown any sign of aggression suddenly begins growling, snapping, or biting, it may be caused by a disease or illness. Pain is an especially common cause of aggression in dogs.

How did a dog become a pet?

Although historians agree that dogs were the first domesticated animal, there is debate on how long ago and where the friendship began. Based on DNA evidence, most researchers believe that the furry, warm-nosed companion beside you descended from a group of gray wolves that has since became extinct.

How did dogs become so loyal?

Because dogs want to bond with a group, they instinctively show loyalty to those who are or who could be part of their pack. Allegiance among members of the pack would be crucial to its success. These dog loyalty facts certainly show that dogs seem to have a natural instinct to be loyal to humans.

How did Dav Pilkey become famous?

Dav Pilkey. David Pilkey, who is also known by the pen name, Sue Denim was born on 4th March, 1966 is a very famous and renowned American writer and illustrator of children's literature. Pilkey gave his book, World War Won for entry in a national competition for student authors and won the prize in his age bracket.

How did dogs become man's best friend?

When did dogs become man's best friend? Man's best friend may have been domesticated about 15,000 years ago, evolving from wolves around the time that humans were establishing their first settlements, new evidence suggests.

How did dog become mans best friend?

Selective breeding of dogs to become man's best friend was a process that traces back to our hunter-gatherer days. Canines then went on to play a role in human civilization. At least 10,000 years ago, humans domesticated wild wolves to become pet dogs. Exactly how the interaction first began is hotly debated.

Are Republicans Labour?

The Republican Labour Party (RLP) was a political party in Northern Ireland. Republican Labour PartyPreceded bySocialist Republican PartyIdeologySocialism Irish republicanism Anti-Common MarketPolitical positionCentre-leftPolitics of Northern Ireland Political parties Elections3 autres lignes

What is a Blue Republican?

"Blue wall" is a term used by political scientists and pundits to refer to 18 U.S. states and the District of Columbia that the Democratic Party consistently won in presidential elections between 1992 and 2012, thus establishing a significant advantage over the Republican Party in the electoral college.

What colors are Democrats?

Although both major political parties (and many minor ones) use the traditional American colors of red, white and blue in their marketing and representations, since election night 2000 blue has become the identifying color for the Democratic Party while red has become the identifying color for the Republican Party.

Who is a liberal Republican?

The Rockefeller Republicans, also called Moderate or Liberal Republicans, were members of the Republican Party (GOP) in the 1930s–1970s who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues, similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York (1959–1973) and Vice President of the United States (1974–1977).

How did the black footed ferret become endangered?

Habitat destruction from plowing the land for crops, exotic diseases and widespread poisoning of its prairie dog prey almost caused North America's only native ferret species to disappear for good. Defenders' team helps reintroduce endangered black-footed ferrets to tribal lands in the West.

What does conservative Democrat mean?

In American politics, a conservative Democrat is a member of the Democratic Party with conservative political views, or with views relatively fiscal conservative or social conservative with respect to those of the national party.

How long did it take for wolves to become dogs?

This could have happened around the same time as the rise of agriculture, about 10,000 years ago. The oldest fossils generally agreed to be domestic dogs date to about 14,000 years, but several disputed fossils more than twice that age may also be dogs or at least their no longer entirely wolf ancestors.

How did man and dog become best friends?

When did dogs become man's best friend? Man's best friend may have been domesticated about 15,000 years ago, evolving from wolves around the time that humans were establishing their first settlements, new evidence suggests. These piles of food and human waste would have attracted scavengers.

How did the black footed ferret become extinct?

As a result of habitat loss and non-native disease, black-footed ferret populations declined to the brink of extinction in the 20th century. Currently, fewer than 500 black-footed ferrets live in the wild today at 17 reintroduction sites—a population well below the 3,000 needed to fully recover the species.

How did there become so many dog breeds?

Dogs were just a loose category of wolves until around 15,000 years ago, when our ancestors tamed and began to manage them. We fed them, bred them, and spread them from continent to continent. Dogs are dumber than monkeys and other mammals in many ways, but they excel at one thing: interpreting human behavior.

What's a progressive Democrat?

The Progressive Democrats of America (PDA) is a progressive political organization and grassroots political action committee operating inside and outside of the United States Democratic Party.

What is the most Republican state?

The most Democratic congressional district in the country is New York's 15th, located in the Bronx, with a PVI of D+44. The most Republican district is Texas's 13th at R+33. As for states as a whole, Wyoming is the most Republican at R+25, and Hawaii is the most Democratic at D+18.

Why are the Republicans called elephants?

The Democratic Party's donkey and the Republican Party's elephant have been on the political scene since the 19th century. The origins of the Democratic donkey can be traced to the 1828 presidential campaign of Andrew Jackson. During that race, opponents of Jackson called him a jackass.

When did dogs start?

Researchers believed they were the first canines to be developed to do a specific job, around 7,000 years ago in southwest Asia. But new discoveries in Siberia suggest that humans may have bred dogs for a specific purpose even earlier, at least 9,000 years ago.

When can a female dog become pregnant?

Female dogs can only get pregnant when they're in heat. A dog will begin her heat cycle after about 6 months of age.

When did stubby die?

Sergeant StubbySergeant Stubby c. 1920Born1916DiedMarch 16, 1926 (aged 9–10)Place of displaySmithsonian "The Price of Freedom" exhibition8 weitere Zeilen

When did domestication occur?

Cereal crops were first domesticated around 9000 BCE in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East. The first domesticated crops were generally annuals with large seeds or fruits. These included pulses such as peas and grains such as wheat.

When can my dog become pregnant?

Female dogs can only get pregnant when they're in heat. A dog will begin her heat cycle after about 6 months of age.

Do dogs become more affectionate when pregnant?

It's common for dogs to become more alert or even protective of their pregnant owners. Not every dog will change during their owner's pregnancy. Some may remain apathetic or unaffected. Others may become more attentive and affectionate.

When did dogs evolve?

Gray wolfWIKIMEDIA, MARTIN MECNAROWSKIDomestic dogs evolved from a group of wolves that came into contact with European hunter-gatherers between 18,800 and 32,100 years ago and may have since died out.

When did cats exist?

It was long thought that cat domestication was initiated in Egypt, because cats in ancient Egypt were venerated since around 3100 BC.

When did euthanasia start?

The word "euthanasia" was first used in a medical context by Francis Bacon in the 17th century, to refer to an easy, painless, happy death, during which it was a "physician's responsibility to alleviate the 'physical sufferings' of the body."

When did viruses evolve?

There are three classical hypotheses on the origins of viruses and how they evolved: Virus-first hypothesis: This is the idea that viruses could have evolved from complex molecules of protein and nucleic acid before cells first appeared on earth.

When did parrots evolve?

Molecular studies suggest that parrots evolved approximately 59 million years ago (Mya) (range 66–51 Mya) in Gondwana.

When did humans appear?

The earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans are from the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia; later fossils from Es Skhul cave in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000 years ago (0.09 million years ago).

What are conservative Democrats called?

A conservative Democrat is a member of the Democratic Party in the United States who holds conservative views on social or economic issues. Conservative Democrats were organized into the Blue Dog caucus in the House.

When Can a dog become pregnant?

Whatever the case may be, you're reading this article because you want to know when dogs can get pregnant. The answer is that dogs generally experience their first estrus cycle, the part of the reproductive cycle when they can fall pregnant, at around six months of age, and most dogs come into heat twice per year.

What do conservative Democrats believe?

The modern view of a conservative Democrat is a Democrat who is fiscally conservative, with a moderate or conservative foreign policy, but with varying views on social or civil policy. Some members of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party apply the term "Democrat in name only" (DINO) to conservative Democrats.

What does a conservative Democrat believe?

The modern view of a conservative Democrat is a Democrat who is fiscally conservative, with a moderate or conservative foreign policy, but with varying views on social or civil policy. Some members of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party apply the term "Democrat in name only" (DINO) to conservative Democrats.

What are the different types of Democrats?

Factions in the Democratic Party (United States) 1.1 Centrist wing. 1.2 Conservative wing. 1.3 Liberal wing. 1.4 Libertarian wing. 1.5 Progressive wing. 1.6 Social democratic and democratic socialist wings.