Who can prescribe an emotional support animal?

Emotional Support Animal: How To Get One (100% LEGAL and COMPLIANT)

Best Answer

The person who canprescribe” or recommend a recognized emotional support animal letter is a licensed mental health professional.

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Who can prescribe emotional support animal?

For a person to legally qualify for an emotional support animal (ESA), he/she must be considered emotionally disabled by a licensed mental health professional (therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist, etc.), as evidenced by a properly formatted prescription letter.

Who can prescribe emotional support animals?

For a person to legally qualify for an emotional support animal (ESA), he/she must be considered emotionally disabled by a licensed mental health professional (therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist, etc.), as evidenced by a properly formatted prescription letter.

Can a primary care physician prescribe an emotional support animal?

Ask a Doctor for an Emotional Support Animal Letter. Like we have already explained above, only a licensed mental health professional can “prescribe” or recommend a valid emotional support animal letter.

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Can a family doctor prescribe an emotional support animal?

You need a prescription letter from a licensed doctor or therapist to be able to legally categorize your pet as an emotional support animal. However, with this letter you will be able to take your dog on airplanes without any extra fees and live in any apartment or home you want without having to pay any pet fees.

What kind of doctor can prescribe an emotional support animal?

The person who can “prescribe” or recommend a recognized emotional support animal letter is a licensed mental health professional.

Can my family doctor prescribe an emotional support animal?

You need a prescription letter from a licensed doctor or therapist to be able to legally categorize your pet as an emotional support animal. However, with this letter you will be able to take your dog on airplanes without any extra fees and live in any apartment or home you want without having to pay any pet fees.

Can a doctor prescribe an emotional support animal?

Ask a Doctor for an Emotional Support Animal Letter. Like we have already explained above, only a licensed mental health professional can “prescribe” or recommend a valid emotional support animal letter.

Who can issue an emotional support animal?

To qualify for an emotional support animal in the US, the owners of emotional support animals must have an emotional or mental disability that is certified by a mental health professional such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other licensed mental health care provider.

Emotional Support Dog- How to Get an Emotional Support Animal

Who qualifies for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Who can write an emotional support animal letter?

The person who can “prescribe” or recommend a recognized emotional support animal letter is a licensed mental health professional.

Who can write emotional support animal letter?

Who Can Write The ESA Letter. There are roughly 28,000 psychiatrists in the United States – any one of them can prescribe an ESA letter. Also, any other licensed mental health professional or physician can prescribe an emotional support animal letter.

Can housing deny an emotional support animal?

Can a Landlord Deny an Emotional Support Animal? An ESA is a medical tool and not a pet. Under Federal Fair Housing Laws, Emotional Support Animals must have access to apartments with a no-pet policy and are exempt from pet-related fees. Emotional Support Animals help aid with an emotional or mental disability.

Can an emotional support animal go anywhere?

Americans With Disabilities cites that emotional support dogs or animals do not have the training to do specific tasks in assisting a person with disability or impairment, unlike service animals. Hence, the pets may not be allowed to accompany their owner in public places ie. restaurants, stores, hotels.

Animal Friends | Training Your Animals for Therapets

What can an emotional support animal do?

What Do Emotional Support Animals Do? As implied by its term, an emotional support animal or ESA, offers emotional comfort for its owner/handler. They provide companionship to those with psychiatric and physical disabilities, but in doing so, emotional support animals are not required to undergo specialized training.

How do I get my doctor to prescribe an emotional support animal?

You need a prescription letter from a licensed doctor or therapist to be able to legally categorize your pet as an emotional support animal.

Who needs an emotional support dog?

Emotional support dogs are dogs that provide comfort and support in forms of affection and companionship for an individual suffering from various mental and emotional conditions. An emotional support dog is not required to perform any specific tasks for a disability like service dogs are.

Can an employer deny an emotional support animal?

An employer may deny your request to bring your service animal to work if it would create undue hardship. Sometimes, employers are concerned that it might be an undue hardship to allow a service dog if other employees have severe dog allergies.

Can an airline deny an emotional support animal?

Airlines cannot refuse to allow your animal onboard because it makes other passengers or flight crew uncomfortable. For a flight that is scheduled for eight hours or longer, airlines may require documentation stating that your animal will not need to relieve itself, or can do so in a sanitary way.

Who can prescribe an ESA?

For a person to legally qualify for an emotional support animal (ESA), he/she must be considered emotionally disabled by a licensed mental health professional (therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist, etc.), as evidenced by a properly formatted prescription letter.

Can any animal be an emotional support animal?

Yes, any animal that provides therapeutic value can be considered an Emotional Support Animal. However, cats and others cannot be considered Service Animals. The Service Animal designation can only belong to dogs and miniature horses.

Can an apartment deny an emotional support animal?

A landlord cannot deny an ESA simply because they do not allow pets. No, your landlord cannot evict you because they do not want you to have an ESA. This is in direct violation of Fair Housing regulations. You are required to request reasonable accommodations for your ESA before bringing them into your apartment.

Would an emotional support animal help me?

In addition to providing someone to talk to, Emotional Support Animals can ward off feelings of anxiety through the provision of affection. As all animals require their own care and attention, having an Emotional Support Animal can improve the symptoms of anxiety.

Does insurance cover an emotional support animal?

State and federal medical coverage through Medicare and/or Medicaid meets many of your ongoing healthcare needs, but neither of these programs cover the cost of a service animal. In fact, no health insurance, even from private companies, covers service animal expenses.

Do I need an emotional support animal?

Emotional support dogs are not specially trained, but they require a letter from a licensed therapist to qualify. They are allowed in airplanes and no-pets housing. While formal training is not a requirement for emotional support dogs, they should behave well and have certain characteristics.

Why I need an emotional support animal?

Legal Rights of Emotional Support Dogs. The Air Carrier Access Act allows service animals and ESAs to accompany their handler in the cabin of an aircraft. The airline might require documentation stating that the person has a disability and the reason why the animal must travel with them.

What constitutes an emotional support animal?

An emotional support animal (ESA), assistance animal, or support animal, is a companion animal that a medical professional says provides some benefit for a person disabled by a mental health condition or emotional disorder. Emotional support animals are typically dogs, but are sometimes cats or other animals.

Can a landlord refuse an emotional support animal?

A landlord cannot deny an ESA simply because they do not allow pets. No, your landlord cannot evict you because they do not want you to have an ESA. This is in direct violation of Fair Housing regulations. You are required to request reasonable accommodations for your ESA before bringing them into your apartment.

Can a hotel charge for an emotional support animal?

Unfortunately, emotional support animals are prohibited from hotels, motels, restaurants, and other business areas, especially if the respective owners raise concerns regarding them. Some hotel owners may allow you to bring your therapy dogs along. However, they may charge you additional fees for this.

Can my landlord charge me for an emotional support animal?

No, emotional support dogs can be any type of breed and are exempt from breed or weight discrimination. Can a landlord charge a pet deposit for an emotional support animal? No, landlords may not charge additional rent or demand a pet deposit for emotional support animals.

Can a landlord deny an emotional support animal in PA?

This includes keeping both emotional support animals and service dogs. However, some landlords or housing providers may require an ESA letter before allowing the tenant to keep an emotional support animal.

Can you bring an emotional support animal to work?

Allowing an employee to bring a dog to work can qualify as a reasonable accommodation, but only if the dog qualifies as a “service animal” under the ADA. However, a dog that has not been trained in any specific task and provides only emotional support or comfort does not qualify as a service animal.

Can a landlord deny an emotional support animal?

A landlord cannot deny an ESA simply because they do not allow pets. No, your landlord cannot evict you because they do not want you to have an ESA. This is in direct violation of Fair Housing regulations. You are required to request reasonable accommodations for your ESA before bringing them into your apartment.

When can a landlord deny an emotional support animal?

A landlord cannot deny an ESA simply because they do not allow pets. No, your landlord cannot evict you because they do not want you to have an ESA. This is in direct violation of Fair Housing regulations. You are required to request reasonable accommodations for your ESA before bringing them into your apartment.

Can a puppy be an emotional support animal?

Emotional support animals are typically dogs and cats, but may include other animals. In order to be prescribed an emotional support animal by a physician or other medical professional, the person seeking such an animal must have a verifiable disability.

Can you write off an emotional support animal?

However, could I deduct my emotional support dog's expenses on my tax return? The answer may shock you – maybe. However, the cost of a dog that is trained to treat an individual's physical or mental illness, and is used primarily for that purpose, is considered a medical-care expense.

How can my dog become an emotional support animal?

An emotional support animal is any animal species that brings comfort to the person with a mental or emotional disability. Under Federal laws, these animals do not have to have any special training. They must be well behaved towards other people and under the handler's control at all times.

Can I get an emotional support animal for anxiety?

To legally make your pet an emotional support animal, a therapist must recommend an ESA for your mental illness. According to the NIMH, 1 in 5 Americans suffer from a mental illness – including anxiety. A licensed therapist must write you an ESA letter recommending an emotional support animal for your condition.

Can apartments charge you for an emotional support animal?

Service and assistance animals are not technically pets and owners do not have to pay pet fees. The landlord, however, can charge a security deposit and may still seek money from the tenant if there is any damage caused by the animal to the home.

Can you charge a deposit for an emotional support animal?

Service and assistance animals are not technically pets and owners do not have to pay pet fees. The landlord, however, can charge a security deposit and may still seek money from the tenant if there is any damage caused by the animal to the home.

Can you get an emotional support animal for anxiety?

To legally make your pet an emotional support animal, a therapist must recommend an ESA for your mental illness. According to the NIMH, 1 in 5 Americans suffer from a mental illness – including anxiety. A licensed therapist must write you an ESA letter recommending an emotional support animal for your condition.

Can you bring an emotional support animal to a hospital?

Americans With Disabilities cites that emotional support dogs or animals do not have the training to do specific tasks in assisting a person with disability or impairment, unlike service animals. Hence, the pets may not be allowed to accompany their owner in public places ie. restaurants, stores, hotels.

Can you bring an emotional support animal to school?

Emotional support animals, therapy animals, and companion animals are seldom allowed to accompany students in public schools. Indeed, the ADA does not contemplate the use of animals other than those meeting the definition of “service animal.”

Can a place deny an emotional support animal?

An emotional support animal cannot be denied by a landlord just because it is a puppy or kitten. Landlords that deny dogs because they are younger and are considered puppies are not following the rules set out by the Fair Housing Act. With that being said, you are responsible for the actions of your ESA.

Can you bring an emotional support animal to college?

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires schools to allow service animals on their campus. Such animals include trained dogs and miniature horses. And under the Fair Housing Act, colleges must permit service and emotional support animals in their dormitories.

Can I register my dog as an emotional support animal?

To have a legitimate Support Animal, you must have an ESA letter from a licensed mental health professional. Landlords that require registration or certificates are misinformed. The only “registration” or “certification” you need is the ESA letter stating your need for an emotional support dog.

Can I bring an emotional support animal to work?

Allowing an employee to bring a dog to work can qualify as a reasonable accommodation, but only if the dog qualifies as a “service animal” under the ADA. However, a dog that has not been trained in any specific task and provides only emotional support or comfort does not qualify as a service animal.

Can a rat be an emotional support animal?

Because they do not require specific training, it is much easier for an animal to qualify. Dogs and cats are the most common options, but your ESA can be just about any type of pet. In fact, pet rats are perfectly suited for the job. Read below for reasons why a rat makes for a great emotional support animal.

Is an emotional support animal considered a service animal?

Emotional support animals, comfort animals, and therapy dogs are not service animals under Title II and Title III of the ADA. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not considered service animals either. A doctor's letter does not turn an animal into a service animal.

Can a landlord charge for an emotional support animal?

No, landlords may not charge additional rent or demand a pet deposit for emotional support animals. Can a landlord ask for proof for my emotional support animal? Yes, a landlord may ask you for an ESA letter from a licensed mental health professional.

Can you get an emotional support animal for depression?

If you have a mental disability – such as depression, anxiety, or other psychological disorder – you may qualify for an emotional support animal. It is well documented that support animals provide a therapeutic benefit to their owners through comfort and companionship.

Can a hotel deny an emotional support animal?

Hotels are not required to allow emotional support animals since hotel stays are considered temporary housing. Demonstrating that your ESA is trained and well behaved may allow you to stay in hotels and AirBNB's.

Can you get an emotional support animal for autism?

In order to be prescribed an emotional support animal, the person seeking such an animal must have a verifiable medical of mental health issue. This covers a wide spectrum from social anxiety to depression to autism. An animal does not need specific training to become an ESA.

Can a tortoise be an emotional support animal?

In an official sense, an emotional support animal (ESA) is someone's pet that has been prescribed by their licensed psychologist, psychiatrist, therapist, or other mental health professional. Thousands of people have found that reptiles provide a tremendous amount of emotional support.

Can a hotel refuse an emotional support animal?

Emotional Support Animals and Hotel Laws. As mentioned above, ESAs are not permitted by the law in hotels, if the owner has a problem with it. Other hotels are pet-friendly on their own where a person with an ESA can get entertained without any problems and fear of rejection.

Can an emotional support animal wear a service dog vest?

There are no emotional support dog laws or regulations which state that you must clearly identify your ESA as an assistance animal or register your emotional support dog, and although it is not required for your animal to wear an Emotional Support Dog Vest, it is highly recommended.

Can you claim an emotional support animal on taxes?

However, could I deduct my emotional support dog's expenses on my tax return? The answer may shock you – maybe. However, the cost of a dog that is trained to treat an individual's physical or mental illness, and is used primarily for that purpose, is considered a medical-care expense.

Can a landlord turn down an emotional support animal?

It is illegal for a landlord to deny housing to a person because that person, or someone associated with that person, has a mental or physical disability. However, federal laws allow persons with certain special needs, such as the mentally disabled, to keep an animal in a rental unit despite a "no pets" provision.

Can emotional support animals fly?

Sorry, your emotional support hedgehog is not allowed on the plane. The airline announced that starting in September, only dogs and cats on a leash or in a carrier will be allowed to fly as ESAs and passengers can travel with only one animal.

What is required in an emotional support animal letter?

The one requirement for a person to legally qualify for an emotional support animal (ESA) is that the person has a letter from a licensed mental health professional (therapist, psychologist, psychiatrist or medical doctor) on his/her letterhead that states the person is under his/her care, is emotionally or

Do you qualify for an emotional support animal?

How to Qualify for An Emotional Support Animal. If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Does ADHD qualify for an emotional support animal?

In most cases ADHD is not debilitating, but it can be for some individuals. Those who would like a service dog, but don't meet the requirements may benefit from a therapy dog or an emotional support animal.

What disabilities qualify for an emotional support animal?

Do I Qualify for an Emotional Support Dog Letter? If you have a mental disability – such as depression, anxiety, or other psychological disorder – you may qualify for an emotional support animal. It is well documented that support animals provide a therapeutic benefit to their owners through comfort and companionship.

Are expenses for an emotional support animal tax deductible?

Really anywhere that a person can go, a service animal can accompany them. The IRS even classifies service animals as a tax-deductible medical expense. Emotional support animals, on the other hand, are not specially trained.

Do you have to pay for an emotional support animal?

Landlords cannot legally: Ask a tenant to pay a deposit, fee, or surcharge in exchange for having an emotional support animal, even if they require such a practice from owners who wish to obtain pets in their dwelling. Require that an emotional support animal have any specific training.

Does anxiety qualify for an emotional support animal?

If you have a mental disability – such as depression, anxiety, or other psychological disorder – you may qualify for an emotional support animal. It is well documented that support animals provide a therapeutic benefit to their owners through comfort and companionship.

Are emotional support animals?

Unlike a Service Dog, an emotional support animal does not need specialized training to handle a task. Further, Emotional Support Animals come in different breeds and animal types and are not just limited to dogs, while Service Animals are either dogs or mini horses.

Does an emotional support animal need to be registered?

All you need to qualify for an emotional support animal is an ESA letter. It is not legally necessary to register your Emotional Support Animal. You may choose to order a custom ESA Identification Card and ESA vest. These are items that may make travel easier, but you can never be required to have them.

Do I qualify for an emotional support animal UK?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Does insurance pay for an emotional support animal?

State and federal medical coverage through Medicare and/or Medicaid meets many of your ongoing healthcare needs, but neither of these programs cover the cost of a service animal. In fact, no health insurance, even from private companies, covers service animal expenses.

How does an emotional support animal help with ADHD?

Dogs require schedules, so having the animal can help serve as a routine for the owner. Service dogs aren't for everyone and an emotional support dog may be able to greater benefit someone with ADHD. Emotional support dogs can help: Outlet for excess energy.

How do you fly with an emotional support animal?

To travel with an emotional support / psychiatric service animal in the cabin, you must submit all required forms to the Special Assistance Desk at least 48 hours before your flight. We'll notify you upon document approval. If you don't complete or meet all the requirements, your animal may be able to fly as a pet.

What qualifies you for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Do I qualify for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Is an emotional support dog considered a service animal?

Emotional support animals, comfort animals, and therapy dogs are not service animals under Title II and Title III of the ADA. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not considered service animals either. A doctor's letter does not turn an animal into a service animal.

Does an emotional support animal need to be certified?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Do you have to register an emotional support animal?

ESA Registration is Not Required. All you need to qualify for an emotional support animal is an ESA letter. It is not legally necessary to register your Emotional Support Animal. If you would like, you can contact Service Dog Certifications and request to register your Emotional Support Animal.

How do you get an emotional support animal?

Steps to getting an emotional support animal Determine which mental disability you may suffer from. Choose the type of animal to adopt. Connect with a licensed mental health professional. Properly use your ESA letter.

How do I get an emotional support animal?

Steps to getting an emotional support animal Determine which mental disability you may suffer from. Choose the type of animal to adopt. Connect with a licensed mental health professional. Properly use your ESA letter.

Does a landlord have to accept an emotional support animal?

Because landlords are not obliged to accept emotional support animals when processing your application in the same way they have to with service dogs, you may have to accept that some accommodation may be off limits to you if you do not have documentation or an ESA letter from a licensed therapist.

How do you train an emotional support animal?

Some people want to take a puppy and teach it to be an emotional support animal. This is a great way to train the dog up “in the ways” of this important duty. Here are the steps to teaching your dog DPT. Step 1 – On the Sofa & Paws Up Command. Step 2 – Practice. Step 3 – Paws Off Command. Step 4 – Laying/Sitting on Sofa.

What are the requirements for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

How do I get an emotional support animal letter?

If a licensed mental health professional writes an Emotional Support Animal letter of prescription, your pet can become an certified ESA. Ask Your Doctor for ESA Letter. Get Your ESA Letter Online. Know Your Rights as an Emotional Support Dog Owner. How to Find the Right Online Source for an ESA Letter.

How do I get an emotional support animal note?

If a licensed mental health professional writes an Emotional Support Animal letter of prescription, your pet can become an certified ESA. Ask Your Doctor for ESA Letter. Get Your ESA Letter Online. Know Your Rights as an Emotional Support Dog Owner. How to Find the Right Online Source for an ESA Letter.

How much does an emotional support animal cost?

Service dogs typically cost from $15,000 to $30,000, though it depends on the training it receives and the breed of dog you've selected. Service dogs can get as expensive as $50,000. If you don't have that kind of money lying around you might need financing to help cover the cost. And that's just the initial costs.

Does an emotional support animal have to wear a vest?

There are no emotional support dog laws or regulations which state that you must clearly identify your ESA as an assistance animal or register your emotional support dog, and although it is not required for your animal to wear an Emotional Support Dog Vest, it is highly recommended.

How do you qualify for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

What conditions qualify for an emotional support animal?

If you suffer from one or more of the mental illnesses listed below, you may qualify for an emotional support dog. Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) Learning Disorders. Autism. General Anxiety Disorder. Gender Identity. Bipolar. Cognitive disorders. Depression.

How long does an emotional support animal letter last?

Emotional Support Animal letters retain their validity 12 months after they are obtained from the doctor/health professional. You should be aware of doctors or sites that advertise “lifetime” ESA letters because those can set you up for trouble in the future.

How do I adopt an emotional support animal?

Steps to getting an emotional support animal Determine which mental disability you may suffer from. Choose the type of animal to adopt. Connect with a licensed mental health professional. Properly use your ESA letter.

Does an emotional support animal need a vest?

There are no emotional support dog laws or regulations which state that you must clearly identify your ESA as an assistance animal or register your emotional support dog, and although it is not required for your animal to wear an Emotional Support Dog Vest, it is highly recommended.

How do you get an emotional support animal prescription?

For this reason, you will want to get a prescription letter for an ESA. You can do this through a mental health professional (psychiatrist, therapist, licensed counselor, etc.). Your doctor or licensed mental health professional will provided an assessment, which may include the use of an Emotional Support Animal.

How do I qualify for an emotional support animal?

If you have an emotional disability, you can legally qualify for an ESA, short for emotional support animal. You must be certified as emotionally disabled by a psychologist, therapist, psychiatrist or other duly-licensed and/or certified mental health professional.

Is an emotional support dog a service animal?

Emotional support animals, comfort animals, and therapy dogs are not service animals under Title II and Title III of the ADA. Other species of animals, whether wild or domestic, trained or untrained, are not considered service animals either. A doctor's letter does not turn an animal into a service animal.

How do I register my animal as an emotional support?

Steps to Certifying your Emotional Support Dog Recognize your need for an ESA. Connect with a licensed therapist/doctor. Demonstrate your need for an ESA. Get your document(s) That's it. No need to register your dog.

Can landlords refuse emotional support animals?

A landlord cannot deny an ESA simply because they do not allow pets. No, your landlord cannot evict you because they do not want you to have an ESA. This is in direct violation of Fair Housing regulations. You are required to request reasonable accommodations for your ESA before bringing them into your apartment.

Can landlords charge for emotional support animals?

Service and assistance animals are not technically pets and owners do not have to pay pet fees. The landlord, however, can charge a security deposit and may still seek money from the tenant if there is any damage caused by the animal to the home.

Can I have 2 emotional support animals?

Living with Multiple ESAs. If you are going to have more than one emotional support pet, protect yourself by having your mental health professional include multiple pets in your ESA letter. The Americans with Disabilities Act does not lay out strict emotional support or service animal number limits.

Can emotional support animals come to work?

Although emotional support animals can be beneficial to individuals suffering from mental disabilities, employers are not required to allow ESA's into the workplace. Since emotional support animals differ from service animals, ESA's do not have the same level of access when it comes to the workplace.

Can emotional support animals go in stores?

Americans With Disabilities cites that emotional support dogs or animals do not have the training to do specific tasks in assisting a person with disability or impairment, unlike service animals. Hence, the pets may not be allowed to accompany their owner in public places ie. restaurants, stores, hotels.

Can landlord deny emotional support animal?

Can a Landlord Deny an Emotional Support Animal? An ESA is a medical tool and not a pet. Under Federal Fair Housing Laws, Emotional Support Animals must have access to apartments with a no-pet policy and are exempt from pet-related fees. Emotional Support Animals help aid with an emotional or mental disability.